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6 April 2017 Question Bank

 

6th APRIL 2017 

QUESTION BANK 

(1 Question)

Answer questions in NOT MORE than 200 words each. Content of the answer is more important than its length.

Links are provided for reference. You can also use the Internet fruitfully to further enhance and strengthen your answers.

 

GS II: SOCIAL HEALTH

1.      HIV/AIDS was the first disease to be the subject of a UNSC resolution. However, without renewed and increased commitment from international donors and recipient governments, the sustainability of future national HIV/AIDS programmes is in doubt." Elucidate.  

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/aids-free-by-2030-india-included/article17834531.ece

International HIV/AIDS assistance declining:

  • In July 2000, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) adopted Resolution 1308, calling for "urgent and exceptional actions" to mitigate the threats posed by HIV/AIDS.
  • These exceptional actions referred to the need to provide exclusive responses and resources to mitigate the threat posed by HIV/AIDS.
  • As the first disease to be the subject of a UNSC resolution, the exceptional status of HIV/AIDS has brought about unprecedented levels of international funding allocated primarily in developing countries where responses to the disease have historically been scarce or non-existent.

We have witnessed a stagnation and even declining trend of HIV/AIDS international financial assistance in recent years.

Data show that most European donor governments have reduced their HIV/AIDS financial commitments since 2012. Moreover, in light of the continuous economic boom in countries such as India and China, international funding agencies now argue that these countries should be donors instead of recipients of international HIV/AIDS-specific grants and loans.

Integration into health systems

  • An integration of HIV/AIDS interventions and primary health-care systems has taken place in India from 2010 onwards.
  • For instance, six components of the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP)-III merged with the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2010.
  • These included Integrated Counselling and Testing Centresers (ICTC); prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT); blood safety; sexually transmitted infections (STI) services; condom programming along with ; together with antiretroviral treatment (ART).
  • The continued integration of HIV/AIDS responses under the umbrella health system is ongoing in the NACP-IV; where all the service delivery units except the targeted interventions (TIs) have been set up within the health-care system.
  • At the 2016 high-level meeting at the UN General Assembly, India pledged to follow targets to fast track the pace of progress towards ending HIV/AIDS as a public health threat in the next five years, and ending the epidemic by 2030.
  • To fulfil the commitment, the Government of India is now playing a larger role in funding its HIV/AIDS programmes - this is evident from the fact that two-thirds of the budget for the NACP-IV is provided by the Government of India and comes from the domestic budget.
  • Indian HIV/AIDS programmes have progressively become less dependent on foreign assistance considering that over 85% of the budgets in the first and second phases of the NACPs and 75% in the third phase were supported by international and bilateral funding mechanisms.

Increase allocation:

  • Health expenditure in India was merely 1.3% in 2015-16, while countries such as Norway, Canada, and Japan allocated over 9% of GDP to health. India's health-care expenditure is also comparatively less than other BRICS countries. The highest expenditure is by Brazil composing of 4.7% of its GDP.
  • A UN report showed that "India has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world - 2.1 million at the end of 2013 - and accounts for about 4 out of 10 people living with HIV/AIDS in the region".
  • If the goal of ending HIV/AIDS in India by 2030 is to become reality, there not only has to be an increase in budgetary allocation to public health care but also a more concentrated effort to increase AIDS awareness.

Awareness on HIV/AIDS

  • Evidence suggests that many people suffering from HIV/AIDS in Asia lack the awareness that they test positive for HIV/AIDS.
  • HIV/AIDS vulnerable populations include- homosexuals, sex workers, drug users, transgenders, prisoners, women and children.
  • Various organisations are working on innovative projects to tackle the stigma and discrimination that hinders access to effective HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care services amongst high-risk populations.
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