3rd JUNE 2017
1. Green Climate Fund
- It is a fund established in 2010 within the framework of the UNFCCC
- to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
- based in Incheon, South Korea.
- centrepiece of efforts to raise Climate Finance of $100 billion a year by 2020 under Paris Climate Agreement.
- This is not an official figure for the size of the Fund itself, however.
- Disputes also remain as to whether the funding target will be based on public sources, or whether “leveraged” private finance will be counted towards the total.
2. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
- It is an agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs
- established through the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
- The Prime Minister is the ex-officio chairperson of NDMA.
- primary purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response
- responsible for framing policies, laying down guidelines and best-practices and coordinating with the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) to ensure a holistic and distributed approach to disaster management.
3. First responder:
- A first responder is a person who is likely to be among the first people to arrive at and assist at the scene of an emergency such as an accident, natural disaster, or terrorist attack and has received some training for this.
- First responders typically include police officers, deputy sheriffs, firefighters, paramedics, rescuers and others who have joined voluntary organisations connected with this type of work.
- indigenously developed nuclear-capable missile
- single -stage liquid fuelled surface-to-surface missile
- strike range of 350 km
- capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads
- advanced inertial navigation system.
- features measures to deceive anti-ballistic missiles
- It is air force version of Prithvi missile
- inducted into India’s Strategic Forces Command in 2003
- recently underwent user trial
5. Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur, Odisha
- missile testing facility located on the Dr. Abdul Kalam island.
- Dr. Abdul Kalam Island, formerly known as Wheeler Island, is an island off the coast of Odisha.
- The island was originally named after English commandant Lieutenant Wheeler.
- On 4 September 2015, the island was renamed to honour the late Indian president, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.
6. Nuclear Command Authority (NCA)
- It is India’s nodal authority responsible for command, control and operational decisions regarding India’s nuclear weapons programme established in 2003.
- It has Executive Council and Political Council.
- The Executive Council is chaired by the National Security Adviser (NSA).
- It gives inputs to the Political Council, which authorises a nuclear attack if need be.
- The Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister and is advised by the Executive Council.
- The NCA’s directives are executed by the Strategic Forces Command
7. Strategic Forces Command (SFC)
- It was created in 2003 through an executive order by Vajpayee Government.
- It receives directive from the Nuclear Command Authority (NCA).
- It is responsible for the management and administration of the country’s tactical and strategic nuclear weapons stockpile.
8. Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme
- The project started in 1982-83 under the leadership of Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
- for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles.
- It was managed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Ordnance Factories Board in partnership with other Indian government organisations.
- It ended in 2008 after strategic missiles were successfully developed.
- The missiles developed under the programme were:
1. Short range surface-to-surface ballistic missile (code-named Prithvi)
2. Short range low-level surface-to-air missile (code-named Trishul) -> technology demonstrator
3. Medium range surface-to-air missile (code-named Akash)
4. Third-generation anti-tank missile (code-named Nag)
5. The Agni missile was initially conceived in the IGMDP as a technology demonstrator project in the form of a re-entry vehicle, and was later upgraded to ballistic missile with different ranges
9. Ballistic missile
- A missile that follows a ballistic trajectory with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target.
- is only guided during relatively brief periods of flight (there are unguided ballistic missiles), and most of its trajectory is unpowered and governed by gravity and air resistance if in the atmosphere.
10. Cruise missile
- A missile which is aerodynamically guided in powered flight.
11. Dhanush missile
- A variant of surface-to-surface or ship-to-ship Prithvi III missile, which has been developed for the Indian Navy.
- It is capable of carrying both conventional as well as nuclear warheads with pay-load capacity of 500 kg-1000 kg
- It can strike targets in the range of 350 km.
12. Dhanush artillery guns
- The Dhanush is a 155 mm towed howitzer.
- The design is based on Bofors, which India acquired in the 1980s.
- The purchase of Bofors gun in the 1980’s included the technology transfer to Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), India.
- It is medium gun with a maximum range of 40 km, and has a high angle of attack. So it can be deployed in both deserts and mountains.
- It is an upgraded version of the Swedish 155-mm Bofors howitzers
- It is 80% indigenous
- The gun is scheduled t be inducted into the army by the end of 2017.
13. Bofors scandal
- occurred between Sweden and India during the 1980s and 1990s,
- implicated then Indian prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi, and several other members of the Swedish and Indian governments who wereaccused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid to supply India’s 155 mm field howitzer.
- It was the biggest arms deal ever in Sweden, and money marked for development projects was diverted to secure this contract at any cost.
- directly led to the defeat of Gandhi’s ruling Indian National Congress party in the November 1989 general elections.
- A communication satellite which carries Ka/Ku-band high throughput communication transponders.
- It also carries a Geostationary Radiation Spectrometer (GRASP) payload to monitor and study the nature of charged particles and the influence of space radiation on satellites and their electronic components.
- It was carried on GSLV Mark III.
- It weighs 3,136 kg and is first successful launch from India of a 4-tonne class satellite.
15. GSLV-Mark III
- A launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
- It is intended to launch satellites into geostationary orbit and as a launcher for an Indian crew vehicle.
- It features an Indian cryogenic third stage and a higher payload capacity.
- It can place 4 tonne satellites in space.
16. Cryogenic rocket engine
- It is a rocket engine that uses a cryogenic fuel or oxidizer, that is, its fuel or oxidizer (or both) are gases liquefied and stored at very low temperatures.
- Notably, these engines were one of the main factors of NASA’s success in reaching the Moon by the Saturn V rocket.
- Rocket engines need high mass flow rate of both oxidizer and fuel to generate a sufficient thrust.
- At that time oxygen and low molecular weight hydrocarbons were used as oxidizer and fuel pair. At room temperature and pressure, both are in gaseous state.
- Hypothetically, if propellants had been stored as pressurized gases, the size and mass of fuel tanks themselves would severely decrease rocket efficiency. Therefore, to get the required mass flow rate, the only option was to cool the propellants down to cryogenic temperatures (below -183 °C [90 K], -253 °C [20 K]), converting them to liquid form.
- Hence, all cryogenic rocket engines are also, by definition, either liquid-propellant rocket engines or hybrid rocket engines.
- Currently, six countries have successfully developed and deployed cryogenic rocket engines: USA, Russia, France , China, Japan and India.
- India had approved an offer of procuring cryogenic engines from the Soviet Union’s Glavkosmos space agency in 1990, but the US was against the deal.
- According to ISRO, the cryogenic engine CE-7.5 can be called an indigenous version, which works on a staged combustion cycle, with Russian design, while work to develop a high thrust CE-20 cryogenic engine began in 2002.
17. Low Earth orbit (LEO)
- A geocentric orbit, i.e. an orbit around the Earth, with altitude from 160 km to 2,000 km
18. Polar Sun-synchronous orbit:
- It is a geocentric orbit that combines altitude and inclination in such a way that the satellite passes over any given point of the planet’s surface at the same local solar time.
- Such an orbit can place a satellite in constant sunlight and is useful for imaging (remote sensing), spy, and weather satellites.
- Typical sun-synchronous orbits are about 600-800 km in altitude, with periods in the 96-100 minute range, and inclinations of around 98° (i.e. slightly retrograde compared to the direction of Earth’s rotation: 0° represents an equatorial orbit and 90° represents a polar orbit).
19. Geosynchronous orbit
- It is an orbit about the Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches the rotation of the Earth on its axis (one sidereal day) of approximately 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds.
- The synchronization of rotation and orbital period means that, for an observer on the surface of the Earth, an object in geosynchronous orbit returns to exactly the same position in the sky after a period of one sidereal day.
20. Geostationary orbit
- It is a circular orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) above the Earth’s equator and following the direction of the Earth’s rotation.
- An object in such an orbit has an orbital period equal to the Earth’s rotational period (one sidereal day) and thus appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers.
- Communications satellites and weather satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas (located on Earth) that communicate with them do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located.
- A geostationary orbit is a particular type of geosynchronous orbit. All geostationary orbits are also geosynchronous, but not all geosynchronous orbits are geostationary.
21. Geostationary transfer orbit (GTO)
- A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high thrust chemical engines.
- Geosynchronous orbits (GSO) are useful for various civilian and military purposes, but demand a great deal of Delta-v to attain. Since, for station-keeping, satellites intended for this orbit typically carry highly efficient but low thrust engines, total mass delivered to GSO is generally maximized if the launch vehicle provides only the Delta-v required to be at high thrust–i.e., to escape Earth’s atmosphere and overcome gravitational losses–and the satellite provides the Delta-v required to turn the resulting intermediate orbit, which is the GTO, into the useful GSO.
22. ‘Global Multidimensional Poverty Index
- developed in 2010 by the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the United Nations Development Programme.
- It replaced the previous Human Poverty Index.
- The global MPI is released annually by OPHI measuring acute poverty covering over 100 developing countries.
- uses different factors to determine poverty beyond income-based lists.
- captures the severe deprivations that each person faces at the same time with respect to education, health and living standards.
- The MPI assesses poverty at the individual level.
- If someone is deprived in a third or more of ten (weighted) indicators, the global index identifies them as ‘MPI poor’, and the extent – or intensity – of their poverty is measured by the number of deprivations they are experiencing.
23. “multidimensionally poor“
- one who lacks at least one-third of ten indicators, grouped into three dimensions of poverty: health, education and standard of living
- The index uses the same three dimensions as theHuman Development Index: health, education, and standard of living. These are measured using ten indicators.
- Each dimension and each indicator within a dimension is equally weighted.
24. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
- Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist leader.
- He became Congress President in 1938 and 1939.
- However, he was ousted from Congress leadership positions in 1939 following differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress high command.
- He was subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India in 1940.
- Bose arrived in Germany in April 1941, where the leadership offered unexpected, if sometimes ambivalent, sympathy for the cause of India’s independence,
- In November 1941, with German funds, a Free India Centre was set up in Berlin, and soon a Free India Radio, on which Bose broadcast nightly. A 3,000-strong Free India Legion, comprising Indians captured by Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps, was also formed to aid in a possible future German land invasion of India.
- By spring 1942, Japanese victories in southeast Asia were witnessed and German priorities had changed.
- Bose landed in Japanese-held Sumatra in May 1943.With Japanese support, Bose revamped the Indian National Army (INA), then composed of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured in the Battle of Singapore.
- To these, after Bose’s arrival, were added enlisting Indian civilians in Malaya and Singapore.
- Before long the Provisional Government of Free India, presided by Bose, was formed in the Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The islands were renamed Shaheed (Martyr) and Swaraj (Independence).
- On the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modelled after that of the Indian National Congress, was raised for the first time in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in north-eastern India.
- The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese, Burmese National Army and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of INA during the attempted invasion of India, also known as Operation U-GO.
- However, Commonwealth forces held both positions and then counter-attacked, in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging forces, which were then forced to retreat back into Burma.
- On 6 July 1944, in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the “Father of the Nation” and asked for his blessings and good wishes for the war he was fighting. This was the first time that Gandhi was referred to by this appellation.
- In late 1944 and early 1945 the British Indian Army first halted and then devastatingly reversed the Japanese attack on India. Almost half the Japanese forces and fully half the participating INA contingent were killed.
- The INA was driven down the Malay Peninsula, and surrendered with the recapture of Singapore.
- The British Raj charged 300 INA officers with treason in the INA trials, but eventually backtracked in the face both of popular sentiment and of its own end.
- Bose had earlier chosen not to surrender with his forces or with the Japanese, but rather to escape to Manchuria with a view to seeking a future in the Soviet Union which he believed to be turning anti-British. He is believed to have died from third degree burns received when his plane crashed in Taiwan.
- Some Indians, however, did not believe that the crash had occurred, with many among them, especially in Bengal, believing that Bose would return to gain India’s independence.
25. Goods and Services Tax (GST)
- It is an indirect tax throughout India to replace taxes levied by the central and state governments.
- It was introduced as The Constitution (101st Amendment) Act 2016, following the passage of Constitution 122nd Amendment Bill.
- It will subsume various indirect taxes including central excise duty, services tax, additional customs duty, surcharges, state-level value added tax and Octroi
- It would mitigate double taxation as it is a tax on value addition only.
- It is consumption based tax levied on the supply of Goods and Services which will be levied and collected at each stage of sale or purchase of goods or services based on the input tax credit method.
- It would provide for a common national market.
- The simplicity of the tax would lead to easier administration and enforcement.
- From the consumer point of view, the biggest advantage would be in terms of a reduction in the overall tax burden on goods, which is currently estimated at 25%-30%,
- It would facilitate free movement of goods from one state to another without stopping at state borders for hours for payment of state tax or entry tax and reduction in paperwork to a large extent.
- GST is expected to be applicable from 1 July 2017.
26. GST Council
- The GST is governed by GST Council.
- It was created in September 2016 under Article 279-A of the Constitution of India.
- It comprises of:
i. The Union Finance Minister (as Chairman),
ii. The Union Minister of State in charge of Revenue or Finance,
iii. The Minister in charge of Finance or Taxation or any other Minister, nominated by each state government.
- The decisions of the GST Council are made by three-fourth majority of the votes cast. The centre has one-third of the votes cast, and the states together have two-third of the votes cast. Each state has one vote, irrespective of its size or population.
- As per Article 279A (4), the Council will make recommendations to the Union and the States on important issues related to GST, like
i. Taxes, cesses, and surcharges to be subsumed under the GST;
ii. Goods and services which may be subject to, or exempt from GST;
iii. The threshold limit of turnover for application of GST;
iv. Rates of GST;
v. Model GST laws, principles of levy, apportionment of IGST and principles related to place of supply;
vi. Special provisions with respect to the eight north eastern states, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttarakhand; and
vii. Other related matters.
27. Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN)
- It is a nonprofit organization formed to provide IT infrastructure and services to the Central and State Governments, tax payers and other stakeholders for implementation of the GST.
- The portal will be accessible to the central government which will track down every transaction on its end while the merchants/ vendors will be filing their taxes and maintaining the details.
- The IT network will be developed by private firms which are in tie up with the central government and will be having stakes accordingly.
- The authorized capital of GSTN is Rs. 10 crore in which Central Government holds 24.5 percent of shares while the state government holds 24.5 percent and rest 51% with private banking firms.