05 APRIL 2021
Daily Current Affairs based on ‘The Hindu’ newspaper as per the syllabus of UPSC Civil Services Examination (Prelims and Mains) compiled by Mrs. Bilquees Khatri.
|1.||GS III: SECURITY||Sukma encounter toll touches 22; Shah cuts short campaign|
|2.||GS II: INTERNATIONAL – ASIA||Philippines accuses China of plans to occupy more areas|
GS III: SECURITY
Sukma encounter toll touches 22; Shah cuts short campaign
- A day after the encounter between Central paramilitary forces and Maoists in Chhattisgarh’s Sukma, bodies of 22 personnel were recovered on 4th April 2021.
- The official added that Tarrem is one of the core areas of the Maoists, and the joint forces were on an area-domination exercise.
What is Naxalism?
- The Naxalism, is a term used to define a violent activities on behalf of landless labourers and tribal people against landlords and others by some individuals and groups.
- The Naxalite movement came to the forefront in the late 1960s, when Naxalbari became famous for the left-wing revolt that took place in West Bengal. Since then, it is perceived as the greatest threat to law and order within Indian.
- The movement has now advanced to the hilly and forest regions of around 8 different states, with more than 150 districts are believed to be under its direct influence. Inspite of Naxalism being termed as the biggest problem in Adivasi areas, the social problems are actually much wider in the form of unemployment, poverty and an untold number of socio-economic injustices.
Reasons behind naxalite movement:
- Tribal discontent: The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 deprives tribals, who depend on forest produce for their living, from even cutting a bark.Massive displacement of tribal population in the naxalism-affected states due to development projects, mining operations and other reasons.
- Easy Targets: Such people who do not have any source of living are taken into naxalism by Maoists.Maoists provide arms and ammunitions and money to such people.
- Gaps in the socio-economic system of the country: Government measuring its success on the basis of number of violent attacks rather than the development done in the naxal-affected areas.
- Absence of strong technical intelligence: There is poor technical intelligence when it comes to tackling naxalism. Infrastructural problems, for instance, some villages are not yet connected properly with any communication network are there which hinders action against naxalites.
- No Follow-Up from administration: It is seen that even after police takes hold of a region, administration fails to provide essential services to the people of that region.
- Confusion over tackling naxalism as a social issue or as a security threat: State governments considering naxalism as the central government’s issue and thus are not taking any initiatives to fight it.
Government’s approach against Naxalism:
- Operation Green Hunt: started in 2010 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the naxal-affected areas. From 223 districts that were affected due to naxalism in the year 2010, the number has come down to 90 in nine years.
- Aspirational Districts Programme: The Government’s approach is to deal with Left Wing Extremism in a holistic manner, in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improvement in governance and public perception management.
- Operation ‘SAMADHAN’ is the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)’s initiative to deal the Naxal problem. The acronym SAMADHAN stands for Smart leadership, Aggressive strategy, Motivation and training, Actionable intelligence, Dashboard Based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs (key result areas), Harnessing technology, Action plan for each theater, and No access to financing.
- Technological interventions: The MHA has suggested the use of trackers for weapons, and bio-metrics in smart guns.Unique Identification number (UID) for Gelatine sticks and explosives.At least one UAV or Mini UAV is deployed for each of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) battalions deployed in the Maoist hotbed.
- Joint Task Forces for operations along inter-State boundaries to be set up. Better inter-state coordination and intelligence sharing.
- ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ being State subjects, action on maintenance of law and order lies primarily in the domain of the State Governments. For this government has took following steps:
- Filling up critical infrastructure gaps under the Scheme for Special Infrastructure in Left Wing Extremism affected States.
- Assistance in training of State Police through the Ministry of Defence.
- Assistance in community policing and civic action programmes.
- ‘National Policy and Action Plan to address Left Wing Extremism’, aimed at eliminating the menace in the shortest possible timeframe is in place.
GS II: INTERNATIONAL – ASIA
Philippines accuses China of plans to occupy more areas
- The Philippines’ Defence Secretary said that China was looking to occupy more areas in the South China Sea, citing the continued presence of Chinese vessels that Manila believes are manned by militias in disputed parts of the strategic waterway.
- It was the second hostile statement by Mr. Lorenzana in two days as he repeated calls by the Philippines for Chinese boats to leave Whitsun Reef, which Manila calls the Julian Felipe Reef, located within its 200-mile exclusive economic zone.
- Chinese diplomats have said the boats anchored near the reef — numbering more than 200 based on initial intelligence gathered by Philippine patrols — were sheltering from rough seas and that no militia were aboard.
- The Chinese Embassy responded to Mr. Lorenzana’s comments, saying it was “completely normal” for Chinese vessels to fish in the area and take shelter near the reef during rough conditions.
- An international tribunal invalidated China’s claim to 90% of the South China Sea in 2016, but Beijing does not recognise the ruling and has built artificial islands in the disputed waters equipped with radar, missiles batteries and hangars for fighter jets.