UPSC CSE EligibilityPrelims ExamMains ExamPersonality TestI.S. Wing

How many attempts does one get to crack the Civil Services Examination?

Number of attempts for General Category candidates is 6; OBC is 9 and for a candidate belonging to SC/ST category is unlimited (there is no restriction on number of attempts for SC/ST category).

What is the level of competition in UPSC Civil Services Examination?

The number of candidates aspiring for the UPSC Civil Services has gone up to more than 9,00,000 who fill the form and almost 4,00,000 who appear in the 1st stage of the exam, Preliminary Exam.
The number of candidates who qualify the Preliminary exam to appear in the Main Exam is equal to 12 to 13 times the number of vacancies in the Civil Services Exam that year.
Out of these, the number of candidates who will qualify to appear in the Interview is 2 times the number of vacancies in the Civil Services advertised that year.
For instance, if the number of vacancies in given year is 1000, then about 13,000 candidates would be called (qualified) by the UPSC to appear in the Main exam & the number of candidates who will qualify the Main examination to appear in the Interview would be about 2,000.

When is the Examination Notice Issued?

UPSC Examination Notices encapsulate the Rules of Examinations notified by the Government.

Examination Notices of all the 14 Examinations are uploaded on the Commission’s website (www.upsc.gov.in) around 3 months before the date of examination.

Examination Notices for direct recruitment examinations are also published in the Employment News/Rozgar Samachar.

The tentative dates of notification of Examinations for a year are also made available on UPSC’s website (www.upsc.gov.in) in July of the previous year.


What is the number of vacancies in Civil Services for which the examination is conducted every year by UPSC?

The number of vacancies is reported by Union Public Service Commission in its advertisement/notification for the exam. The number of vacancies varies every year; the number of vacancies per year in the last 4 years has varied between 1000 and 1200.

When does the UPSC advertise about the Examination?

UPSC publishes/releases the notification for holding the Civil Services Examination every year in the month of May for the Preliminary Test to be held in the month of August, of the same year. Applications are invited by UPSC till June end of that year.

What is the eligibility to appear for this Examination?

Candidates must be at least 21 years old on the 1st of August of the year in which they aspire to give the Exam and must hold a graduation degree (recognized by University Grants Commission) to appear for this Examination. Indian students holding a foreign degree need to ensure that their degree is accredited or recognized by UGC.

Can a candidate who has completed his education from an Open School/ University apply for Civil Services Examination?

Yes, provided it is a recognized University and he/she possess the educational qualifications prescribed for the exam and is otherwise eligible.

Is a candidate who has done his graduation without passing class Xth and class XIIth eligible for Civil Services Examination?

Yes, provided the graduation has been completed from a recognized University and he/she possess the educational qualifications prescribed for the exam and is otherwise eligible.

Is there any relaxation in number of attempts for physically handicapped?

A physically handicapped will get as many attempts as are available to other non-physically handicapped candidates of his or her community, subject to the condition that a physically handicapped candidate belonging to the General Category shall be eligible for nine attempts. The relaxation will be available to the physically handicapped candidates who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates.

Whether a candidate belonging to a community included in the OBC list of states but not in the Central list of OBCs is eligible for age relaxation, reservation etc. for Civil Services Examinations?

No. Only candidates belonging to communities which are included in the Central list of OBC′s are eligible for such concessions.

Whether the relaxation on number of attempts and reservation applicable to all candidates included in the Central List of OBC′s?

Members of other backward classes, belonging to the Creamy layer (‘Creamy layer’ is the income limit beyond which OBCs are not eligible for quotas) will not be eligible for reservations in jobs and education. Right now the creamy layer bar stands at earnings of over rupees 6 lakhs annually.

Can a candidate write the Civil Services (Main) Examination in English and take the interview in Hindi or in any other Indian language? level?

The candidates, who opt for an Indian Language medium to write Civil Services (Main) Exam, may choose either the same Indian Language or English or Hindi as the medium for the interview.

The candidates, opting to write the Civil Services (Main) Examination in English, may choose as the medium for interview either English or Hindi or any other Indian Language opted by them for the compulsory Indian Language Paper.

However, the candidates, who are exempted from the compulsory Indian Language Paper, will have to choose either English or Hindi as medium of Interview of Personality Test.

After the written examination, on what criterion is the answer books sent for evaluation? Is it on Roll no. basis or based on centre of examination? That is, will a particular examiner/set of examiners get to evaluate answer books only of a particular centre or a particular group of Roll nos.?

Mixing of the answer books received from different venues is done before sending them for evaluation. Computer-based randomized fictitious code no. is given to each answer-book before evaluation.

Is it likely that my evaluated performance suffers because my answer books were evaluated by a ‘strict’ examiner, while another candidate benefits as his answer books were evaluated by a liberal examiner?

The Paper Setter, who is an eminent person in his field, normally acts as the Head Examiner, and wherever the number of candidates in a particular subject is very large, the Commission appoints Additional Examiners for valuation of answer books.
To achieve uniformity in valuation, where more than one Examiner is involved, the Commission arranges a meeting of the Head Examiner with the Additional Examiners after the Examination is over. At this stage, they discuss thoroughly the question paper, the appropriate answers and decide the standard of evaluation.
To further bring about uniformity of assessment inter se the Examiners, the following procedure is undertaken: The Head Examiner conducts a sample survey of answer books of each Additional Examiner to verify whether the uniform standards of evaluation evolved in the meeting of Examiners have actually been followed. Depending on the standard adopted by the Additional Examiner, the Head Examiner may confirm the awards without any change if the Examiner has correctly followed the standard decided upon, or may carry out upward / downward moderation as considered necessary to ensure maximum possible degree of uniformity in the evaluation process.
Therefore, the aspect of inter examiner variation in standards of evaluation in a Paper affecting candidates performance is taken care of adequately.

Can I know the question-wise marks awarded to me for a paper?

In a competitive examination, what is relevant is not the absolute performance of a candidate, but his her relative performance that in fact determines whether the candidate qualifies and, if so, his/her position in the merit list. Accordingly, as already explained above, the evaluation process does not end after initial evaluation by an Examiner. Moderation, wherever applied, is on the total award initially given (the so-called raw marks) and not on question-wise basis.

Therefore, once the evaluation process is complete, neither raw marks nor question-wisemarks subsist. What subsists is the candidates total score in a paper awarded at the end of the evaluation process and this award is normally made available to the candidate in due course (a month or two) on the Commissions website.

Are subject-wise/paper wise marks of each candidate made accessible/available to him/her for Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination?

No. This is because the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination is simply a short-listing (elimination) exercise to select candidates for the Main Examination and as such the scores obtained in this Examination are not communicated to candidates. However, an individual candidate desirous of knowing his/her marks may seek such information from the Commission pursuant to RTI Act 2005.

Q1: What are the Eligibility Criteria?

(a) Nationality

(b) Age

(c) Educational Qualification

(d) Physical Standard

(e) Number of Attempts

For details of each of the above, please refer further FAQ herein below:

Q2: What are the details of 'Nationality' criteria for UPSC-IAS Exams?

Citizen of India. (Subjects of Nepal, Bhutan & others are eligible for posts other than IAS, IPS)

(1) For the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, a candidate must be a citizen of India.
(2) For other services, a candidate must be either:—
(a) a citizen of India, or
(b) a subject of Nepal, or
(c) a subject of Bhutan, or
(d) a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India, or
(e) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India.
Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.
Provided further that candidates belonging to categories (b), (c) and (d) above will not be eligible for appointment to the Indian Foreign Service.
A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India.

Q3: What are the lower and upper age limits for UPSC - CSE?

Minimum 21 years. Maximum 32 years (Relaxation for OBC, SC/ST)

  • GENERAL: 21 to 32 years.
  • O.B.C (Non-creamy Layer): 21 to 35 years
  • SC/ST: 21 to 37 years
Category Age Relaxation


21 to 32 years. Age is calculated as on 1st August of the year of the examination. (For 2019 Exam, candidates born not earlier than 2 Aug, 1987 and not later than 1 Aug 1998 are eligible).

(Non-creamy Layer)

3 years relaxation (21 to 35 years)
SC/ST 5 years relaxation (21 to 37years).
Ex-serviceman 5 years relaxation
Blind, Hearing Impaired & Orthopaedically Handicapped 10 years relaxation

(a) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years on the 1st of August, 2019 i.e. candidate must have been born not earlier than 2nd August, 1987 and not later than 1st August, 1998.

(b) The upper age-limit prescribed above will be relaxable:
(i) up to a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe;
(ii) up to a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates;
(iii) up to a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services Personnel, disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof;
(iv) up to a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August, 2019 and have been released;
(a) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st August, 2019 otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency; or
(b) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service; or
(c) on invalidment.
(v) up to a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs/SSCOs who have completed an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Service as on 1st August, 2019 and whose assignment has been extended beyond five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate that they can apply for civil employment and that they will be released on three months’ notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment.
(vi) up to a maximum of 10 yearsin case of (a) blindness or low vision; (b) deaf and hard of hearing; (c) locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy; (d) autism, intellectual disability, specific learning disability and mental illness; and (e) multiple disabilities from amongest persons under clauses (a) to (d) including deaf-blindness.

Note I:—Candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes who are also covered under any other clauses of Rule 6(b) above, viz. those coming under the category of Ex-servicemen, (a) blindness and low vision; (b) deaf and hard of hearing; (c) locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy; (d) autism, intellectual disability, specific learning disability and mental illness; and (e) multiple disabilities from amongst persons under clauses (a) to (d) including deaf-blindness etc. will be eligible for grant of cumulative age-relaxation under both the categories.

Note II:—The term Ex-servicemen will apply to the persons who are defined as Ex-servicemen in the Ex-servicemen (Re-employment in Civil Services and Posts) Rules, 1979, as amended from time to time.

Note III:—The age concession under Rule 6(b)(iv) and (v) will not be admissible to Ex-servicemen and Commissioned Officers including ECOs/SSCOs, who are released on own request.

Note IV:—Notwithstanding the provision of age relaxation under Rule 6(b)(vi) above, candidates of Persons with Benchmark Disability will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/Posts to be allocated to the Persons with Benchmark Disability by the Government.

Save as provided above, the age-limits prescribed can in no case be relaxed.
The date of birth, accepted by the Commission is that entered in the Matriculation or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or in a certificate recognised by an Indian University as equivalent to Matriculation or in an extract from a Register of Matriculates maintained by a University which extract must be certified by the proper authority of the University or in the Higher Secondary or an equivalent examination certificate. These certificates are required to be submitted only at the time of applying for the Civil Services (Main) Examination. No other document relating to age like horoscopes, affidavits, birth extracts from Municipal Corporation, Service records and the like will be accepted.

The expression Matriculation/Higher Secondary Examination Certificate in this part of the Instruction include the alternative certificates mentioned above.

Note 1:—Candidate should note that only the date of birth as recorded in the Matriculation/Secondary Examination certificate or an equivalent certificate on the date of submission of application will be accepted by the Commission, and no subsequent request for its change will be considered or granted.

Note 2:—Candidates should also note that once a date of birth has been claimed by them and entered in the records of the Commission for the purpose of admission to an Examination, no change will be allowed subsequently or at any other Examination of the Commission on any grounds whatsoever.

Note 3:- The candidate should exercise due care while entering their date of birth in the online Application Form for the Preliminary Examination. If on verification at any subsequent stage, any variation is found in their date of birth from the one entered in their matriculation or equivalent Examination certificate, disciplinary action will be taken against them by the Commission under the Rules.

Q4: What are the educational qualification required for UPSC - CSE?

Graduation degree from UGC recognised University

The candidate must hold a degree of any of Universities incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section-3of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.

(Note: Proof of passing requisite exam is required to be produced with Main Exam application form. Thus candidates who appeared for degree exam awaiting result are eligible)

Candidates, who passed M.B.B.S. or any other Medical Examination but have not completed internship by the time of submission of their applications for the Civil Services (Main) Examination, will be provisionally admitted to the Examination under proviso as per notification.

The candidate must hold a degree of any of Universities incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section-3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.

Note I: Candidates who have appeared at an examination the passing of which would render them educationally qualified for the Commission’s examination but have not been informed of the results as also the candidates who intend to appear at such a qualifying examination will also be eligible for admission to the Preliminary Examination. All candidates who are declared qualified by the Commission for taking the Civil Services (Main) Examination will be required to produce proof of passing the requisite examination with their application for the Main Examination failing which such candidates will not be admitted to the Main Examination. The applications for the Main Examination will be called sometime in the month of July/August, 2018.

Note II: In exceptional cases the Union Public Service Commission may treat a candidate who does not have any of the foregoing qualifications as a qualified candidate provided that he/she has passed examination conducted by the other Institutions, the standard of which in the opinion of the Commission justifies his/her admission to the examination.

Note III: Candidates possessing professional and technical qualifications which are recognised by the Government as equivalent to professional and technical degree would also be eligible for admission to the examination.

Note IV: Candidates who have passed the final professional M.B.B.S. or any other Medical Examination but have not completed their internship by the time of submission of their applications for the Civil Services (Main) Examination, will be provisionally admitted to the Examination provided they submit along with their application a copy of certificate from the concerned authority of the University/Institution that they had passed the requisite final professional medical examination. In such cases, the candidates will be required to produce at the time of their interview original Degree or a certificate from the concerned competent authority of the University/Institution that they had completed all requirements (including completion of internship) for the award of the Degree.

Q5: Are there any physical fitness / standard for UPSC - CSE

Candidates must be physically fit according to physical standards for admission to Civil Services Examination as per guidelines given in Appendix-III of Rules for Examination published in the Gazette of India Extraordinary.

Q: What are the requirements for physically disabled candidates?

For details refer notification

Disbaled category code

Q6: How many attempts a candidate can have for UPSC - Civil Services Exams?

Category No. of Attempts Allowed
 General 6 attempts
OBC (Non-creamy Layer) 9 attempts
SC/ST Up to 37 years (No limit).
Physically Handicapped (General) 9 attempts

Q7: How attempts are counted for UPSC - CSE?

Q8: For OBC candidates what are the requirements?

Q9: In OBC category who are included?

Q10: In SC category what castes are included?

Q11: What are the relaxation for Ex- serviceman?

Q12: Are Charted Accountants eligible for UPSC - CSE ?

Prelims Exam is the first stage of Civil Services Exam

Scheme of Prelims Exam

Paper I (GS)

  • Current Events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian national movement.
  • Indian and World Geography - physical, social, economic geography of India and the world.
  • Indian Polity3 and governance – constitution, political system, panchayat raj, public policy, Rights issues, etc.
  • Economic & Social Development - sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives etc.
  • General issues on environmental ecology, bio-diversity and climate change-that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science

Paper II (CSAT)

  • Comprehension.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
  • Decision making and problem solving.
  • General mental ability
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc. (Class X level),Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. –Class X level).
  • English language comprehension skills (Class X level).

 Important Points:

  1. The CSAT aptitude test or Paper-II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) examination will be a qualifying paper only with a minimum of 33% to be secured to sit for the Civil Services (Mains) exam.
  2. The questions in both Paper-I (GS) and Paper-II (CSAT) will be of multiple choice, objective type for 200 marks each and the time allotted for each paper is two hours.
  3. It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) examination for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he or she does not appear in both the papers of the (Prelims) exam.

The UPSC Prelims exam is meant to serve as a screening test only. The marks of Paper 1 are alone considered for making the merit list for this exam. Only those candidates who have qualified the Prelims can write the Mains exam. The marks scored in the Prelim exam is not counted in the final tally of the Mains exam or the Interview

IAS Prelims Exam is also known as CSAT (Civil Services Aptitude Test)

  1. The Prelims Exam shall comprise of two Compulsary Papers of 200 Marks each having objective type questions (MCQ)
  2. It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the Papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he/she does not appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination
  3. Paper- II will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualify marks fixed at 33%. It means UPSC will evaluate Paper- II first. If candidate secures 330% or more marks in Paper- II than only Paper- I will be evaluated
  4. Whether a candidate qualifies Prelims Exam or not will be decided on the basis of marks obtained in Paper- I. Cut off marks is declared every year for prelims Paper- I. Candidates seeking marks above cut off mark are declared qualified and as such are eligible for writing Mains Exam/li>
  5. To qualify Civil Services Exam, candidates are required to qualify all the three stages (Prelims. Mains and Interview) in one and the same year. It means if a candidate fails at any stage he/she has to start the exam process once again next year from Prelims./li>

2 Papers - Languages (Compulsory, Non-Ranking, qualifying)
1 Paper - Essay
4 Papers - General studies (GS)
2 Papers - Optional Subject
Total 9 Papers

Qualifying Papers (Non-Ranking)
Paper A One of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the languages included in the Eight Schedule to the Constitution. 300 Marks
Paper B             English 300 Marks
Papers to be Counted for Merit (Ranking)
Paper I Essay 250 Marks
Paper II General Studies I (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society) 250 Marks
Paper III General Studies II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations) 250 Marks
Paper IV General Studies III (Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management) 250 Marks
Paper V General Studies IV ( Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) 250 Marks
Paper VI Optional Subject- Paper 1 250 Marks
Paper VII Optional Subject- Paper 2 250 Marks
For the optional papers in the Main Examination, UPSC has a list of about twenty-six subjects out of which any one subject has to be selected by the candidate.
Subtotal (Written Test) 1750 Marks
Personality Test (Interview) 275 Marks
Grand Total 2025 Marks

The main Examination is intended to assess the overall intellectual traits and depth of understanding of candidates rather than merely the range of their information and memory.
The nature and standard of questions in the General Studies papers (Paper II to Paper V) will be such that a well educated person will be able to answer them without any specialized study. The questions will be such as to test a candidate’s general awareness of a variety of subjects, which will have relevance for a career in Civil Services. The questions are likely to test the candidate’s basic understanding of all relevant issues, and ability to analyze, and take a view on conflicting socio-economic goals, objectives and demands.

The candidates must give relevant, meaningful and succinct answers.
The scope of the syllabus for optional subject papers (Paper VI and Paper VII) for the examination is broadly of the honours degree 1evel i.e. a level higher than the bachelors’ degree and lower than the masters’ degree. In the case of Engineering, Medical Science and law, the level corresponds to the bachelors’ degree.


  • The papers on Indian Languages and English will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.
  • The candidates will have to answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where translation is involved).



The aim of the paper is to test the candidate’s ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly, in English and Indian Language concerned.

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:-

(i) Comprehension of given passages

(ii) Precis Writing

(iii) Usage and Vocabulary

(iv) Short Essay.

Indian Languages:-

(i) Comprehension of given passages.

(ii) Precis Writing

(iii) Usage and Vocabulary.

(iv) Short Essay

(v) Translation from English to the Indian language and vice-versa.



Candidates will be required to write an essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given.

They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.


General Studies- I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

Indian Heritage and Culture

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues
  • The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.


  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Geography of the World

  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.


General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.

Governance, Constitution, Polity

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders

Social Justice

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.

International relations

  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.


General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.

Economic Development

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.


  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.


  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.


  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Disaster Management

  • Disaster and disaster management.


  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate 


General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

How to choose Optional:

UPSC Mains Syllabus


Paper I

  • Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals, and humans.
  • Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping pattern. Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping, and their importance in relation to food production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.
  • Important features, scope and propagation of various types of forestryplantations such as extension, social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests.
  • Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplication; cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.
  • Soil: physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Modern classification of Indian soils, Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertiliser use, integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Fixation of phosphorus and potassium in soils and the scope for their efficient use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.
  • Soil conservation planning on watershed basis. Erosion and run-off management in hilly, foot hills, and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them. Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area.
  • Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.
  • Farm management, scope, important and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resources use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems.
  • Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them.
  • Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small, and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; farm mechanization and its role in agricultural productioin and rural employment. Training programmes for extension workers; lab-to-land programmes.

Paper II

  • Cell Theory, cell structure, cell organelles and their function, cell division, nucleic acids-structure and function, gene structure and function. Laws of heredity, their significance in plant breeding. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploid and an euploids. Mutation-micro and macro-and their role in crop improvement. Variation, components of variation. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
  • History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin and evolution of crop plants, centre of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources-conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation, backcross method of breeding, breeding for disease and pest resistance, role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of biotechnology in plant breeding. Improved varieties, hybrids, composites of various crop plants.
  • Seed technology, its importance. Different kinds of seeds and their seed production and processing techniques. Role of public and private sectors in seed production, processing and marketing in India.
  • Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibition, surface tension, diffusion and osmosis. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration and water economy.
  • Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis-modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and nonaerobic respiration; C, C and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
  • Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones, and other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy.
  • Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits, plants, vegetable crops and flower plants; the package of practices and their scientific basis. Handling and marketing problems of fruit and vegetables. Principal methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable products, processing techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition. Raising of ornamental plants, and design and layout of lawns and gardens.
  • Diseases and pests of field vegetables, orchard and plantation crops of India. Causes and classification of plant pests and diseases. Principles of control of plant pests and diseases Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management. Epidemiology and forecasting.
  • Pesticides, their formulations and modes of action. Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins.
  • Storage pests and diseases of cereals and pulses, and their control.
  • Food production and consumption trends in India. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution and processing constraints. Relation of food production to national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of calorie and protein.

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science 

Paper I

 Animal Nutrition: Energy sources, energy, metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs and wool. Evaluation of feeds as sources of                             energy.

  • Trends in protein nutrition: sources of protein metabolism and synthesis, protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein ratios in ration.
  • Minerals in animal diet: Sources, functions, requirements and their relationship of the basic minerals nutrients including trace elements.
  • Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances: Sources, functions, requirements and inter-relationship with minerals.
  • Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy Cattle: Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes. Limitations of various feeding systems.
  • Advances in Non-Rumiant Nutrition-Poultry-Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry, meat and egg production, Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages.
  • Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Swine-Nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to growth and quality of meat production, Nutrient requirement and feed formulation for baby-growing and finishing pigs.
  • Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition: A critical review and evaluation of feeding experiments, digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and measures of food energy. Nutrition requirements for growth, maintenance and production. Balanced rations.
  • Animal Physiology:
  • Growth and Animal Production: Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
  • Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion: Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and Female reproduction organ, their components and function. Digestive organs and their functions.
  • Environmental Physiology: Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanism involved in animal behaviour, methods of controlling climatic stress.
  • Semen quality: Preservation and Artificial Insemination-Components of semen, composition of spermatozoe, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in-vivo and in-vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep Freezing techniques in cows, sheep and goats, swine and poultry.
  • Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception.
  • Livestock Production and Management:
  • Commercial Dairy Farming: Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a specialised farming, economic dairy farming, Starting of a dairy farm. Capital and land requirement, organisation of the dairy farm.
    • Procurement of goods; opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal, Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production; pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic ration for dairy cattle; supply of greens throughout the year, field and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm, Feeding regimes for day and young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals, new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.
  • Commercial meat, egg and wool production: Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature stock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio-economic concept.
  • Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.
  • Genetics and Animal Breeding:
  • Mitosis and Meiosis; Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome abberations; Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate.
  • Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Effective population size; Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; Role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives.
  • Breeding Systems: Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and Correlated response; Inbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and specificcombining ability; Breeding for threshold character.

Paper II

Health and Hygiene

  • Histology and Histological Techniques: Stains-Chemical classification of stains used in biological work-principles of staining tissues-mordants-progressive & regressive stains-differential staining of cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements-Methods of preparation and processing of tissues-celloidin embedding-Freezing microtomy-Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of cell, organells & inclusions; cell divison-cell types-Tissues and their classification-embryonic and adult tissues-Comparative histology of organs:- vascular, Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo-skeletal and urogenital systems-Endocrine glands-Integuments-sense organs.
  • Embryology: Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals-gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes & placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twin & twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives.
  • Bovine Anatomy-Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX-surface anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental & coronal nerve block-Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudental nerve, median, ulnar & radial nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
  • Anatomy of Fowls: Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
  • Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion, Endocrine glands in health and disease.
    • Blood constituents: Properties and functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and properties; coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
    • Circulation: Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle-heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms, Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, Osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary & pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier-Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds.
    • Respiration: Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases-neural control of respiration-chemoreceptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
    • Excretion: Structure and function of kidney-formation of urinemethods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance; physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary recreation in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.
    • Endocrine glands: Functional disorders, their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion-hormonal receptors-classification and function.
  • General knowlege of pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs: Celluar level of pharmacodynamics and pharmaco-kinetics-Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance-drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system-Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics-Autocoids-Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial injections-use of hormones in therapeutics-chemotherapy of parasitic infections-Drug and economic persons in the Edible tissues of animals-chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.
  • Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation: Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil-Importance of climate in animal health-effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship between industrialisation and animal agriculture-animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows & sows, milking cows, broiler birds-stress, strain & productivity in relation to animal habitation.

Animal Diseases:

  • Pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortum lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of cattle, pigs and poultry, horses, sheep and goats.
  • Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, pig and poultry.
  • Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisioning.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
  • Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific diseases: hard immunity-disease free zones-'zero' disease concept-chemoprophylaxis.
  • Anaesthesia and Surgery: local, regional and general-preanaesthetic medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation, Hernia, choking, abomassal displacement-Caesarian operations, Rumenotomy-Castrations.
  • Disease investigation techniques: Materials for laboratory investigation-Establishment Animal Health Centres-Disease free zone.
  • Veterinary Public Health
  • Zoonoses: Classification, definition; role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases-occupational zoonotic diseases.
  • Epidemiology: Principles, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control, Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections.
  • Veterinary Jurisprudence: Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases-state and control Rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases-S.P. C.A.-veterolegal cases-certificates-Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.

Milk and Milk Products Technology:

  • Milk Technology:
    • Organization of rural milk procurement, collection and transport of raw milk.
    • Quality, testing and grading raw milk, Quality storage grades of whole milk, Skimmed milk and cream.
    • Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, youghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterlized milks. Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.
  • Milk Products Technology: Selection of raw materials, assembling, production, processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food; Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products-BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control Costs.

Meat Hygiene and Technology:

  • Meat Hygiene:
    • Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts-grading of carcass meat cuts-duties and functions of Veterinarians in Wholesome meat production.
    • Hygienic methods of handling production of meat-spoilage of meat and control measures-Post slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them-quality improvement methods-Adulteration of meat and defection-Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
    • Meat Technology: Physical and chemical characteristics of meat-meat emulsions-methods of preservation of meat-curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products; meat products and formulations.
    • Byproducts: Slaughter house by products and their utilisation-Edible and inedible byproducts-social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house byproducts-Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
  • Poultry Products Technology:
    • Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat, and products. Legal and BIS standards.
    • Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.
  • Rabbit/Fur Animal farming: Care and management of rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste byproducts. Grading of wool.

Extension: Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.


 Paper I


  • Meaning and scope Anthropology
  • Relationship with other disciplines: History, Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Political Science, Life Science, Medical Science.
  • Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance
    • Social-cultural Anthropology
    • Physical and biological Anthropology
    • Archaeological Anthropology
  • Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
    • Organic Evolution: Theories of evolution in historical perspective, pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian period. Modern synthetic theory of evolution; brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll's rule, Cope's rule, Gause's rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, mosaic evolution); Principles of systematics and taxonomy, major primate taxa, tertiary and quaternary fossil primates, Systematics of Hominoidea and Hominidae, Origin and evolution of man-'Homo erectus and Homo sapiens'.
  • Phylogenetic status, characteristics and distribution of the following:
    • Prepleistocence fossil primates: Oreopithecus.1
    • South and East African hominids: Plesianthropus/Australopithecus Africaus, Paranthropus, Australopithecus.
    • Paranthropus-Homo erectus-Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
    • Homo Heidelbergensis.
    • Neanderthal man-La-chapelle-aus-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmelites types (Progressive type).
    • Rhodesian man
    • Homo sapiens-Cromognon, Grimaldi, Chancelede.
    • Recent advances in understanding the evolution, distribution and multidisciplinary approach to understand a fossil type in relation to others.
  • Evolutionary trend and classification of the order Primates: Relationship with other mammals, molecular evolution of Primates, Comparative anatomy of man and apes, primate locomotion;-terrestrial and arboreal adaptation, skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
  • Cultural Evolution-broad outlines of pre-historic cultures:
    • Paleolithic
    • Mesolithic
    • Neolithic
    • Chalcolithic
    • Copper-Bronze age
    • Iron age


  • Family: Definition and typology of family, household and domestic groups. Basic structure and functions; stability and changes in family. Typological and processual approaches to the study of family. Impact of urbanization, industrialization, education and feminist movements. Universality of family-a critique.
  • Concept of kinship: Definition of kin, incest prohibition exogamy and endogamy. Principles of descent-types and functions. Political and jural aspects of kinship. Unilineal, bilateral and double descent. Descent, filiation and complementary filiation. Kinship terminology, typology and approaches to the study of terminology Alliance and descent.
  • Marriage: Definition, types and variation of marriage systems. Debates on the universal definition of marriage. Regulation of marriage-preferential, prescriptive, proscriptive and open systems. Types and form of marriage Dowry, bride-price, pestation and marriage stability.


  • Study of culture, patterns and processes. Concept of culture, patterns of culture, relationships between culture and civilization and society.
  • Concept of Social Change and Cultural Change
  • Social structure and social organization, Role-analysis and social network. Institutions, groups community. Social stratification: principles and form, status, class and power, gender. Nature and types of mobility.
  • Concept of Society
  • Approaches to the study of culture and society-classical evolutionism, neo-evolutionism, culture ecology, historical particularism and diffusionism, structural-functionalism, culture and personality, transaction-alism, symbolism, congnitive approach and new ethnography, post structuralism and post-modernism.


  • Definitions and functions of religion. Anthropological approaches to the study of religion-evolutionary, psychological and functional. Magic, witchcraft and sorcery; definitions and functions and functionaries: priest, saman, medicine man and sorcerers. Symbolism in religion and rituals. Ethnomedicine. Myths and rituals: definitions and approaches to their study-structural, functional and processual Relation with economic and political structures.


  • Meaning, scope and relevance, principles governing production, distribution and consumption in communities subsisting on hunting-gathering, fishing, pastoralism, horticulture and other economic pursuits. Fomalist and substantivist debate-Dalton, Karl-polyanny and Marx approach and New Economic Anthropology. Exchange: gifts, barter, trade, ceremonial exchange and market economy.
  • Theoretical foundations. Types of political organisations-band, tribe, chiefdom, state, concept of power, authority and legitimacy. Social control, law and justice in tribal and peasant societies.


  • Concepts of developmental Anthropological perspective. Models of development. Critiques of classical developmental theories. Concepts of planning and planned development. Concept of participatory development. Culture ecology and sustainable development. Displacement and rehabilitation.


  • Concept of research in anthropology subjectivity and reflexivity in terms of gender class, ideology and ethics. Distinction between methodology, methods and techniques. Nature and explanation in anthropological research. Positivistics and non-positivistic approaches. Comparative methods; nature, purpose and methods of comparison in social and cultural anthropology. Basic techniques of data collection. Interview, participant and other forms of observation, schedules, questionnaire, case-study methods, extended case study methods, life histories and secondary sources, oral history, genealogical method, participatory, learning and assessment (PLA). Participatory rapid assessment (PRA). Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.


  • Concept, scope and major branches of human genetics. Its relationship with other branches of science and medicine.
  • Method for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedegree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyotype analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
  • Twin study method: zygosity, heritability estimates, present status of the twin study method and its applications.
  • Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal, and polygenic inheritance in man.
  • Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages (statistical and probability methods for study of human genetics).
  • Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
    • Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders)
    • Sex chromosomal aberrations-Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex, and other syndromic disorders.
    • Autosomal aberrations-Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
    • Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counselling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
  • Concept of race in histrogical and biological perspective. Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race-crossing in man.
  • Ethnic groups of mankind: characteristics and distribution in world, racial classification of human groups. Principal living peoples of world. Their distribution and characterisicts.
  • Age, sex and population variation in gentic marker: ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA, Hp, transferrin, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups. Impact of smoking air pollutions, alcoholism, drugs and occupational hazards on health.


  • Concepts and Methods of Ecological Anthropology. Adaptation-social and cultural Deterministic theories-a critique. Resources-biological, non-biological and sustainable development. Biological adaptation-climatic, environmental, nutritional and genetic.


  • Relevance in understanding of contemporary society. Dynamics of ethnicity at rural, tribal, urban and international levels. Ethnic conflicts and political developments. Concept of ethnic boundaries. Ethnicity and concept of nation state.


Concept of human growth and development:

  • Stages of growth-prenatal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.
  • Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
  • Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations-biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.


  • Reproductive biology, demography and population study. Reproductive physiology of male and female. Biological aspects of human fertility. Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
  • Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
  • Demographic methods-census, registration system, sample methods, duel reporting system.
  • Population structures and population dynamics.
  • Demographic rates and ratios, life table-structure and utility.
  • Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility natality and mortality.
  • Methods of studying population growth.
  • Biological consequences of population control and family welfare.


  • Anthropology of sports
  • Nutritional Anthropology.
  • Anthropology in designing of defense and other equipments.
  • Forensic Anthropology.
  • Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction.
  • Applied human genetics-Paternity diagnosis genetic counseling and eugenics.
  • DNA technology-prevention and cure of diseases.
  • Anthropo-gentics in medicine
  • Serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
  • Application of statistical principles in human genetics and Physical Anthropology.



  • Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization-Pre historic (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Vedic and post-Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal cultures.


  • Demographic profile of India-Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing its structure and growth.


  • The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-a critique. Varnasharam, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth. Theories on the origin of caste system, Jajmani system. Structural basis of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.


  • Emergence, growth and development of anthropology in India-contributions of the 19th Century and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies. Contemporary nature of anthropological studies in India.


Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture-traditional and contemporary.

  • Aspects of Indian village-Social organizations of agriculture, impact of market economy on Indian villages.
  • Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status.


Tribal situation in India

  • Biogenetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution. Problems of the tribal Communities-land alienation, poverty indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition. Developmental projects-tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation:
  • Development of forest policy and tribals, Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal and rural populations.


  • Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes. Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections. Emergence of ethnicity, tribal movements and quest for identity. Pseudo-tribalism.


Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

  • Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religious on tribal societies.
  • Tribe and nation state-a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.


History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.

  • Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
  • Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.

Optional Botany

Paper I


Microbiology and Plant Pathology

  • Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water.
  • Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins.


  • Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their economic potential.

Phanerogams: Gymnosperms

  • Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Conferrals and Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
  • Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
  • Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of angiospermic families–Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae (Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae (Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae.
  • Stomata and their types. Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.
  • Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization. Endosperm–its development and function. Patterns of embryo development. Polymbryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.

Plant Utility and Exploitation

  • Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov's centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes.
  • Latex, cellulose Starch and their products. Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy plantation. Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.


  • Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.


Cell Biology

  • Techniques of Cell Biology.
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells -structural and ultrastructural details.
  • Structure and function of extracellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes, hydrogenosome).
  • Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1 proteins, etc.).
  • Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance.
  • Study of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomes–structure, behaviour and significance.

Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution

  • Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics and multiple factors. Linkage and crossing over–methods of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and sexlinked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility). Prions and prion hypothesis.
  • Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and protines. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Multigene families.
  • Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics

  • Methods of plant breeding -- introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineering–methods of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding.
  • Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square Tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression.

Physiology and Biochemistry

  • Water relations, Mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis–photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway (photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiration (anaerobic and aerobic, including fermentation–electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis.
  • Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and Energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome).
  • Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal).
  • Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis and manipulation.

Ecology and Plant Geography

  • Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediaion).
  • Forest types of India -- afforestation, deforestation and social forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books. Biodiversity. Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property Rights. Biogeochemical cells. Global warming.

Optional Chemistry

Paper I

Atomic structure

  • Quantum theory, Heisenberg's uncertainity principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent).
  • Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions. Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

Chemical bonding

  • Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments.
  • Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules: H2+, H2 to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN, CN, BeH2 and CO2. Comparison of valence bond and molecular oribtal theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

Solid State

  • Forms of solids, law of constancy of interfacial angles, crystal systems and crystal classes (crystallographic groups). Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell. Laws of rational indices. Bragg's law. X-ray diffraction by crystals.
  • Close packing, radious ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values. Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2, CdI2 and rutile. Imperfections in crystals, stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.
  • Elementary study of liquid crystals.

The gaseous state

  • Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, liquefictaion of gases and critical phenomena, Maxwell's distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion.

Thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics

  • Thermodynamic systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy; first law of thermodynamics, work done on the systems and heat absorbed in different types of processes; calorimetry, energy and enthalpy changes in various processes and their temperature dependence.
  • Second law of thermodynamics; entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various process, entropy–reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions; criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities; Nernst heat theorem and third law of thermodynamics.
  • Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions and thermodynamic quantities; chemical equilibrium in ideal gas reactions.

Phase equilibria and solutions

  • Phase equilibria in pure substances; Clausius-Clapeyron equation; phase diagram for a pure substance; phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids–upper and lower critical solution temperatures; partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.


  • Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
  • Galvanic cells, concentration cells; electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
  • Processes at electrodes; double layer at the interface; rate of charge transfer, current density; overpotential; electroanalytical techniques–voltameter, polarography, ampero-metry, cyclic-voltametry, ion selective electrodes and their use.

Chemical kinetics

  • Concentration dependence of rate of reaction; defferential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions.
  • Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions; effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant.
  • Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods.
  • Collisions and transition state theories.


  • Absorption of light; decay of excited state by different routes; photochemical reactions between hydrogn and halogens and their quantum yields.

Surface phenomena and catalysis

  • Absorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms,–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

Bio-inorganic chemistry

  • Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), ionophores, photosynthesis–PSI, PSII; nitrogen fixation, oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.

Coordination chemistry

  • Electronic configurations; introduction to theories of bonding in transition metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spactra of metal complexes.
  • Isomerism in coordination compounds. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planer complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
  • Synthesis and structures of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
  • Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization. Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

General chemistry of ‘f’ block elements

  • Lanthanides and actinides; separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.

Non-Aqueous Solvents

  • Reactions in liquid NH3, HF, SO2 and H2 SO4. Failure of solvent system concept, coordination model of non-aqueous solvents. Some highly acidic media, fluorosulphuric acid and super acids.

Paper II

Delocalised covalent bonding

  • Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, kekulene, fulvenes, sydnones.
  • Reactions
  • Reaction mechanisms: General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanism or organic reactions illustrated by examples–use of isotopes, cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy diagrams of simple organic reactions–transition states and intermediates; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
  • Reactive intermediates: Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium and carbonium ions, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and niternes.
  • Substitution reactions: SN1, SN2, SNi, SN1/, SN2/, SNi/ and SRN1 mechanisms; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compound including simple heterocyclic compounds–pyrrole, furan thiophene, indole.
  • Elimination reactions: E1, E2 and E1cb mechanism; orientation in E2 reactions–Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic synelimination–acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
  • Addition reactions: C and C=C; nucleophilicºElectrophilic addition to C N, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.ºaddition to C=O, C
  • Rearrangements: Pinacol-pinacolune, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer–Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements.

Pericyclic reactions

  • Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—clectrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5] FMO approach.

Chemistry and mechanism of reactions

  • Aldol condensation (including directed aldol condensation), Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.

Polymeric Systems

  • Physical chemistry of polymers: Polymer solutions and their thermodynamic properties; number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, light scattering, osmotic pressure, viscosity, end group analysis methods.
  • Preparation and properties of polymers: Organic polymers–polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber. Inorganic polymers–phosphonitrilic halides, borazines, silicones and silicates.
  • Biopolymers: Basic bonding in proteins, DNA and RNA.

Synthetic uses of reagents

  • OsO4, HIO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiA1H4 NaBH4 n-BuLi, MCPBA.


  • Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.

Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation

  • Rotational spectra: diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.
  • Vibrational spectra: diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
  • Electronic spectra: Singlet and triplet states. N–>–p* and p>* transitions; application top conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls–Woodward-Fieser rules.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance: Isochronous and anisochronous protons; chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of H1 NMR to simple organic molecules.
  • Mass spectra: Parent peak, base peak, daugther peak, metastable peak, fragmentation of simple organic cleavage, McLafferty rearrangement. amolecules;
  • Electron spin resonance: Inorganic complexes and free radicals.

Optional Civil Engineering

 Paper – I


Part A

  • Engineering Mechanics
  • Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.
  • First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
  • Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings.
  • Kinematics in Cartesian and Polar Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity.
  • Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy principles, D’ Alembert’s Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion, Flywheel.

Strength of Materials

  • Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending & shear.
  • Deflection of beams : Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, close coiled helical springs, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s Rankine’s and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr’s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, Thin and Thick cylinder : Stresses due to internal and external pressure–Lame’s equations.

Structural Analysis

  • Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution, Kani’s method of analysis and column Analogy method applied to indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
  • Rolling loads and Influences lines: Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.
  • Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.
  • Matrix methods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
  • Plastic Analysis of beams and frames: Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.
  • Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principle axes, calculation of bending stresses.

Part B

Structural Steel Design

  • Structural Steel: Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression member, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings, slab and gussetted column bases.
  • Design of highway and railway bridges: Through and deck type plate girder, Warren girder, Pratt truss.
  • Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures
  • Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete: Working Stress and Limit State method of design–Recommendations of I.S. codes Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings.
  • Cantilever and Counterfort type retaining walls.
  • Water tanks: Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.
  • Prestressed concrete: Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.
  • Design of brick masonry as per I.S. Codes
  • Design of masonry retaining walls.

Part C

Fluid Mechanics

  • Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.
  • Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow: Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, sources and sinks, flow separation, free and forced vortices.
  • Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, sluice gates, weirs, orifice meters and Venturi meters.
  • Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory, model laws, undistorted and distorted models.
  • Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.
  • Boundary layer:
  • Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.
  • Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line, siphons, expansion and contractions in pipes, pipe networks, water hammer in pipes and surge tanks.
  • Open channel flow: Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, resistance equations and variation of roughness coefficient, rapidly varied flow, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation, moving surges and hydraulic bore.

Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower

  • Centrifugal pumps–Types, characteristics, Net Positive Suction Height (NPSH), specific speed. Pumps in parallel.
  • Reciprocating pumps, Airvessels, Hydraulic ram, efficiency parameters, Rotary and positive displacement pumps, diaphragm and jet pumps.
  • Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines, performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.
  • Principles of hydropower development. Type, layouts and Component works. Surge tanks, types and choice. Flow duration curves and dependable flow. Storage an pondage. Pumped storage plants. Special features of mini, micro-hydel plants.

 Part D


Geo Technical Engineering

  • Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits particles size distribution, classifications of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.
  • Capillary water and structural water, effectives trees and pore water pressure, Darcy’s Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.
  • Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test.
  • Compaction of soil, field control of compaction. Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients.
  • Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests.
  • Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankine’s theory, Coulomb’s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall, sheetpile walls, Braced excavation.
  • Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure.
  • Immediate and consolidation settlement.
  • Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number.
  • Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests, pressure meter tests.
  • Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils, Boussinessq’s theory, Newmarks’s chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable settlement.
  • Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts, buoyancy rafts, Pile foundation, types of piles, pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity. Foundation for Bridges. Ground improvement techniques–preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.


Paper II



Part A

Construction Technology

Engineering Materials:

  • Physical properties of construction materials: Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete, Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, Flooring Tiles, use of ferro-cement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete.
  • Timber: Properties and uses; defects in timber; seasoning and preservation of timber.
  • Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials, termite proofing, Materials, for Low cost housing.


  • Building components and their functions; Brick masonry: Bonds, jointing. Stone masonry. Design of Brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, serviceability and strength requirements; plastering, pointing. Types of Floors & Roofs. Ventilators, Repairs in buildings.
  • Functional planning of building: Building orientation, circulation, grouping of areas, privacy concept and design of energy efficient building; provisions of National Building Code.
  • Building estimates and specifications; Cost of works; valuation.
  • Construction Equipment: Standard and special types of equipment, Preventive maintenance and repair, factors affecting the selection of equipment, economical life, time and motion study, capital and maintenance cost.
  • Concreting equipments: Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, Concrete pump.
  • Earth-work equipment: Power shovel hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors, and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.
  • Construction Planning and Management: Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, project control and supervision. Cost reduction measures.
  • Newwork analysis: CPM and PERT analysis, Float Times, cashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, up dating, Cost analysis and resource allocation.
  • Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of investments. Project profitability.

Part B

Survey and Transportation Engineering

  • Survey: Common methods of distance and angle measurements, plane table survey, levelling traverse survey, triangulation survey, corrections, and adjustments, contouring, topographical map. Surveying instruments for above purposes. Techeometry. Circular and transition curves. Principles of photogrammetry.
  • Railways: Permanent way, sleepers, rail fastenings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs, stations and yards, turntables, signals, and interlocking, level-crossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways : Superelevlation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort, relaying of track.
  • Highway Engineering: Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments. Geometrical design : Cross section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads : low cost roads, flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction, evaluation of pavement failure and strengthening.
  • Drainage of roads: Surface and sub-surface drainage.
  • Traffic Engineering: Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised and unchannelised intersections, rotary design elements, markings, sign, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys. Principle of highway financing.

Part C

Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering

  • Hydrology: Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, depression storage, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analysis, flood estimation, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing-Muskingam method.
  • Ground water flow: Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined equifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube wells, pumping and recuperation tests, ground water potential.
  • Water Resources Engineering: Ground and surface water resource, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation, economics of water resources projects.
  • Irrigation Engineering: Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.
  • Canals: Distribution systems for canal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport, cost analysis of lined and unlied canals, drainage behind lining.
  • Water logging: causes and control, drainage system design, salinity.
  • Canal structures: Design of cross regulators, head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.
  • Diversion head work: Principles and design of weirs of permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders.
  • Storage works: Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity and earth dams, stability analysis, foundation treatment, joints and galleries, control of seepage.
  • Spillways: Spillway types, crest gates, energy dissipation.
  • River training: Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

Part D

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Supply: Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities, of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
  • Intake of water: pumping and gravity schemes. Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-; rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.
  • Water storage and distribution: storage and balancing reservoirs: types, location and capacity. Distribution system : layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations.
  • Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage–separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon. Plumbing in public buildings.
  • Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
  • Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tanks, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
  • Solid waste: collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.
  • Environmental pollution: Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.

Commerce And Accountancy


Accounting and Finance

Accounting, Taxation & Auditing

  1. Financial Accounting:
  • Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioural Sciences.Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Researchand Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed Assets, Contingencies, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Cash Flow Statement, Earnings Per Share.
  • Accounting for Share Capital Transactions including Bonus Shares, Right Shares, Employees Stock Option and Buy- Back of Securities.
  • Preparation and Presentation of Company Final Accounts.
  • Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction of Companies.

  1. Cost Accounting:
  • Nature and Functions of Cost Accounting. Installation of Cost Accounting System.   Cost Concepts related to Income Measurement, Profit Planning, Cost Control and  Decision Making.
  • Methods of Costing: Job Costing, Process Costing, Activity Based Costing.
  • Volume – cost – Profit Relationship as a tool of Profit Planning.
  • Incremental Analysis/Differential Costing as a Tool of Pricing Decision,ProductDecision,Make or Buy Decisions,Shut Down Decisions etc.
  • Techniques of Cost Control and Cost Reduction: Budgeting as a Tool of Planning and Control. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis.
  • Responsibility Accounting and Divisional Performance Measurement.

  1. Taxation:
  • Income Tax: Definitions; Basis of Charge; Incomes which do not form Part of Total Income. Simple problems of Computation of Income (of Individuals only) under Various   Heads, i.e., Salaries,Income from House Property, Profits and Gains from Business or Profession, Capital Gains, Income from  other sources, Income of other Persons included in Assessee’s Total Income.
  • Set - Off and Carry Forward of Loss.
  • Deductions from Gross Total Income. Salient Features/Provisions Related to VAT and Services Tax.
  1. Auditing:
  • Company Audit: Audit related to Divisible Profits, Dividends, Special investigations Tax audit.
  • Audit of Banking, Insurance, Non-Profit Organizations and Charitable Societies/Trusts/Organizations.


Financial Management, Financial Institutions and Markets


  1. Financial Management:

  • Finance Function: Nature, Scope and Objectives of Financial Management: Risk and Return Relationship.
  • Tools of Financial Analysis: Ratio Analysis, Funds-Flow and Cash-Flow Statement.
  • Capital Budgeting Decisions: Process, Procedures and Appraisal Methods. Risk and Uncertainty Analysis and Methods.
  • Cost of capital: Concept, Computation of Specific Costs and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. CAPM as a Tool of Determining Cost of Equity Capital.
  • Financing Decisions: Theories of Capital Structure - Net Income (NI) Approach, Net Operating Income (NOI) Approach, MM Approach and Traditional Approach. Designing of Capital structure: Types of Leverages (Operating, Financial and Combined), EBIT- EPS Analysis, and other Factors.
  • Dividend Decisions and Valuation of Firm: Walter’s Model, MM Thesis, Gordan’s Model Lintner’s Model.Factors Affecting Dividend Policy.
  • Working Capital Management: Planning of Working Capital. Determinants of Working Capital. Components of Working Capital Cash, Inventory and Receivables.
  • Corporate Restructuring with focus on Mergers and Acquisitions (Financial aspects only).

  1. Financial Markets and Institutions:
  • Indian Financial System: An Overview Money Markets: Participants, Structure and Instruments.Commercial Banks. Reforms in Banking sector. Monetary and Credit Policy of RBI. RBI as a Regulator.
  • Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market. Financial Market Instruments and Innovative Debt Instruments; SEBI as a Regulator.
  • Financial Services: Mutual Funds, Venture Capital, Credit Rating Agencies, Insurance and IRDA.


Organisation Theory and Behaviour, Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations

Organisation Theory and Behaviour

  1. Organisation Theory:
  • Nature and Concept of Organisation; External Environment of Organizations -Technological, Social, Political,Economical and Legal; Organizational Goals - Primary and Secondary goals, Single and Multiple Goals;Management by Objectives.
  • Evolution of Organisation Theory: Classical, Neo-classical and Systems Approach.
  • Modern Concepts of Organisation Theory: Organisational Design, Organisational Structure and Organisational Culture.
  • Organisational Design–Basic Challenges; Differentiation and Integration Process; Centralization and Decentralization Process; Standardization / Formalization and Mutual Adjustment. Coordinating Formal and Informal Organizations. Mechanistic and Organic Structures.
  • Designing Organizational structures–Authority and Control; Line and Staff Functions, Specialization and Coordination.
  • Types of Organization Structure –Functional. Matrix Structure, Project Structure. Nature and Basis of Power,Sources of Power, Power Structure and Politics. Impact of Information Technology on Organizational Design and Structure.
  • Managing Organizational Culture.

  1. Organisation Behaviour:
  • Meaning and Concept; Individual in organizations: Personality, Theories, and Determinants; Perception -Meaning and Process.
  • Motivation: Concepts, Theories and Applications. Leadership-Theories and Styles. Quality of Work Life (QWL): Meaning and its impact on Performance, Ways of its Enhancement. Quality Circles (QC) – Meaning and their Importance. Management of Conflicts in Organizations. Transactional Analysis, Organizational Effectiveness, Management of Change.

Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations

  1. Human Resources Management (HRM) :
  • Meaning, Nature and Scope of HRM, Human Resource Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Specification, Recruitment Process, Selection Process, Orientation and Placement, Training and Development Process, Performance Appraisal and 360° Feed Back, Salary and Wage Administration, Job Evaluation,Employee Welfare, Promotions, Transfers and Separations.

  1. Industrial Relations (IR):
  • Meaning, Nature, Importance and Scope of IR, Formation of Trade Unions, Trade Union Legislation, Trade Union Movement in India. Recognition of Trade Unions, Problems of Trade Unions in India. Impact of Liberalization on Trade Union Movement.
  • Nature of Industrial Disputes : Strikes and Lockouts , Causes of Disputes, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes.
  • Worker’s Participation in Management: Philosophy, Rationale, Present Day Status and Future Prospects.
  • Adjudication and Collective Bargaining.
  • Industrial Relations in Public Enterprises, Absenteeism and Labour Turnover in Indian Industries and their Causes and Remedies.
  • ILO and its Functions.




  1. Advanced Micro Economics:

(a)    Marshallian and Walrasiam Approaches to Price determination.

(b)    Alternative Distribution Theories: Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki.

(c)    Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly.

(d)    Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks & Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A.K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.

  1. Advanced Macro Economics:

Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination: Classical, Keynes (IS-LM) curve, Neo classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate determination and Interest Rate Structure.

  1. Money - Banking and Finance:

(a)    Demand for and Supply of Money: Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keyne’s Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury. Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.

(b)    Public Finance and its Role in Market Economy: In stabilization of supply, allocation of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Govt. revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings. Public Expenditure and its effects.

  1. International Economics:

(a)    Old and New Theories of International Trade

(i)     Comparative Advantage

(ii)   Terms of Trade and Offer Curve

(iii) Product Cycle and Strategic Trade Theories.

(iv)  Trade as an engine of growth and theories of under development in an open economy

(b)   Forms of Protection: Tariff and quota.

(c)    Balance of Payments Adjustments: Alternative Approaches.

(i)     Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates.

(ii)   Theories of Policy Mix.

(iii) Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility.

(iv)  Floating Rates and their Implications for Developing Countries:

(v)    Currency Boards.

(vi)  Trade Policy and Developing Countries.

(vii)    BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macro-Model.

(viii)  Speculative attacks.

(ix)  Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.

(x)    WTO: TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.

  1. Growth and Development:

(a)    .

(i)     Theories of growth: Harrod’s model,

(ii)   Lewis model of development with surplus labour,

(iii) Balanced and Unbalanced growth,

(iv)  Human Capital and Economic Growth.

(v)    Research and Development and Economic Growth

(b)   Process of Economic Development of Less developed countries: Myrdal and Kuzments on economic development and structural change: Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.

(c)    Economic development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.

(d)   Planning and Economic Development: changing role of Markets and Planning, Private- Public Partnership.

(e)    Welfare indicators and measures of growth – Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.

(f)     Development and Environmental Sustainability – Renewable and Non Renewable Resources, Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.


  1. Indian Economy in Pre-Independence Era:

Land System and its changes, Commercialization of agriculture, Drain theory, Laissez faire theory and critique. Manufacture and Transport: Jute, Cotton, Railways, Money and Credit.

  1. Indian Economy after Independence:

(A) The Pre Liberalization Era:

(i)     Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and V.K.R.V. Rao.

(ii)   Agriculture: Land Reforms and land tenure system, Green Revolution and capital formation in agriculture.

(iii) Industry Trends in composition and growth, Role of public and private sector, Small scale and cottage industries.

(iv)  National and Per capita income: patterns, trends, aggregate and Sectoral composition and changes their in.

(v)    Broad factors determining National Income and distribution, Measures of poverty, Trends in poverty and inequality.

(B) The Post Liberalization Era:

(i)     New Economic Reform and Agriculture: Agriculture and WTO, Food processing, Subsidies, Agricultural prices and public distribution system, Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth.

(ii)   New Economic Policy and Industry: Strategy of industrialization, Privatization, Disinvestments, Role of foreign direct investment and multinationals.

(iii) New Economic Policy and Trade: Intellectual property rights: Implications of TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS and new EXIM policy.

(iv)  New Exchange Rate Regime: Partial and full convertibility, Capital account convertibility.

(v)    New Economic Policy and Public Finance: Fiscal Responsibility Act, Twelfth Finance Commission and Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation.

(vi)  New Economic Policy and Monetary system. Role of RBI under the new regime.

(vii) Planning: From central Planning to indicative planning, Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning: 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.

(viii)  New Economic Policy and Employment: Employment and poverty, Rural wages, Employment Generation, Poverty alleviation schemes, New Rural, Employment Guarantee Scheme.

Optional Electrical Engineering 

Paper I

Electrical Circuits: Theory and Applications

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filter-theory: design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation: Input formats; methods of education formulation; solution of equations; output formats; SPICE.

Signals & Systems

Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations.

Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

E.M. Theory

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: Distributed parameter circuits, traveling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Waveguides: parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and cylindrical wave guides, resonators. Planar transmission lines; stripline, microstripline.

Analog Electronics

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.

Digital Electronics

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

Energy Conversion

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors.

Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors single-phase motors; FHP.

Power Electronics and Electric Drives

Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

Analog Communication

Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

Microwaves and Antenna

Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves: ground waves, sky wave, space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications. Antenna: Various types, gain, resistance, band-width, beamwidth and polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas; microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services: Klystron, magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated circuits. Microwave measurements.

Paper II

Control Systems

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquist’s criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

Electrical Engineering Materials

Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials: conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction; solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials; polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials: behaviour and application. Photonic materials: refractive index, absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and opto-electronic materials.

Microprocessors and microcomputers

8-bit microprocessor: architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBM PC architecture: overview, introduction to DOS, Advanced microprocessors.

Measurement and Instrumentation

Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.

IC Technology

Overview of IC Technology. Unit-steps used in IC fabrication: wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of poly-silicon, silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon di-oxide; metallisation and passivation.

Power Systems: Analysis and Control

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission; FACTS. Computer control and Automation: Introduction to energy control centres; various states of a power system; SCADA systems and RTUs. Active power control: Speed control of generators, tie-line control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.

Power system protection

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management

Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy: Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: Thermal conversion: photo-voltaic conversion. Wave-energy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics : discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.

Digital Communication

Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

Satellite Communication, Radar and TV

Satellite Communication: General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar: Basic principles, Pulsed systems: CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radars. Television Systems: Television systems and standards, Black-and White-and Colour-TV transmission and receiver systems.

Fibre Optic System

Multiplexing: Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing. Optical properties of materials: Refractive index absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links




Physical Geography:

1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior;

Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sea level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.

4. Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

5. Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography:

1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

2. Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population

theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.



1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land

tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.

4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco-tourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use;

Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.


 Paper I

Section A

General Geology

The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismographs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.

Geomorphology and Remote Sensing

Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.

Aerial photographs and their interpretation-mertis and limitations. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems. Indian Remote Sensing Sataellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology. The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.

Structural geology

Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics. Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.

Section B


Species- definition and nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of microfossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and its importance.

Stratigraphy and Geology of India

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsurface water. Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers. water-bearing characteristics of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater. Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.

Paper II
Section A


Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray crystallography.

Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

Physical and chemical characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.

Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology

Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle., Magmatic differentation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.

Types and agents of metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamporphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.


Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation. diagenesis and lithification. Properties of sediments. Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment. Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of India.


Economic Geology

Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore localisation. Ore textures and structures. Metallogenic epochs and provinces. Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

Mining Geology

Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

Geochemistry and Environmental Geology

Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.

Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation. Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution Environment protection-legislative measures in India.



1. Sources:
Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy numismatics, monuments.
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary ; poetry, scientific literature, literature , literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors ; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic) ; Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5.Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada) :
Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire:
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire , Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration , economy, land grants, coinage, t rade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration , Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women , Education and educational inst i tut ions; Nalanda, Vikramshi la and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government ; Growth of ar t and archi tecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: - Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
- The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
- "Indian Feudalism"
- Agrarian economy and urban settlements
- Trade and commerce
- Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
- Condition of women
- Indian science and technology

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
- Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
- Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
- Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India
- Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15. The Thirteenth Century:
- Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success
- Economic, social and cultural consequences
- Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
- Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:
- "The Khalji Revolution"
- Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
- Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrar ian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
- Fi ruz Tughluq: Agrar ian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta's account.

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
- Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.
- Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
- Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
- Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir(Zainul Abedin), Gujarat , Malwa, Bahmanids.
- The Vijayanagra Empire.
- Lodis.
- Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun.
- The Sur Empire: Sher Shah's administration.
- Portuguese Colonial enterprise.
- Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
- Regional cultural specificities.
- Literary traditions.
- Provincial architecture.
- Society, culture, literature and the arts. in Vijayanagara Empire.

- Conquests and consolidation of the Empire.
- Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems.
- Rajput policy.
- Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
- Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
- Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
- The Empire and the Zamindars.
- Religious policies of Jahangir , Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
- Nature of the Mughal State.
- Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts.
- The Ahom Kingdom.
- Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
- Population, agricultural production, craft production.
- Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution.
- Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems.
- Condi t ion of peasants, condi t ion of women.
- Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
- Persian histories and other literature.
- Hindi and other religious literature.
- Mughal architecture.
- Mughal painting.
- Provincial architecture and painting.
- Classical music.
- Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century:
- Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
- The regional pr incipal i t ies: Nizam's Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.
- Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
- The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
- Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761.
- State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.



1. European Penetration into India:
The Ear ly European Set t lements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of Br i t ish colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement ; Mahalwari Settlement ; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements ; Commercialization of agriculture ; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic Transformation of india ; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy, the Introduction of western educat ion in India; The r ise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6 . Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Is War Chandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow Remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebel l ion (1859-60) , Deccan Upr ising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899- 1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 - Origin, Character, Causes of failure the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant upr isings in the post -1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism: Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; The Moderates and Extremists; the Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi, Character of Gandhian nationalism: Gandhi 's popular appeal ; Rowlatt Satyagraha ; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-co operation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement ; Simon Commission ; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party ; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism the Muslim League: the Hindu Mahasabha ; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation: Nehru's Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947: Backward castes and tribes in post - colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change: Land reforms ; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post - colonial India; Progress of science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:
(i) European States System.
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
(iii) French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
(v) Br i t ish Democrat ic Politics, 1815 - 1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization:
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society
(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System:
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii) Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
(i) South and South-East Asia
(ii) Latin America and South Africa
(iii) Australia
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
(i) 19th Century European revolutions
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917- 1921
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22. World Wars:
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii) World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii) World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of two power blocs
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(i) Latin America-Bolivar
(ii) Arab World-Egypt
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
(i) Factors const raining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe:
(i) Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991
(ii) Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.



Constitutional and Administrative Law

1. Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution.

2. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority.

3. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties.

4. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers.

5. Governor and his powers.

6. Supreme Court and High Courts:

(a) Appointments and transfer.

(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.

7. Centre, States and local bodies:

(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the States.

(b) Local bodies.

(c) Administrative relationship among

Union, State and Local Bodies.

(d) Eminent domain – State property –common property – community property.

8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.

9. Services under the Union and the States:

(a) Recruitment and conditions of services; Constitutional safeguards; Administrative tribunals.

(b) Union Public Service Commission and

State Public Service Commissions – Power and functions

(c) Election Commission – Power and functions.

10. Emergency provisions.

11. Amendment of the Constitution.

12. Principles of natural justice – Emerging trends and judicial approach.

13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.

14. Separation of powers and constitutional governance.

15. Judicial review of administrative action.

16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.


International Law

1. Nature and definition of international law.

2. Relationship between international law and municipal law.

3. State recognition and state succession.

4. Law of the sea: Inland waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas.

5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human rights and procedures available for their enforcement.

6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, extradition and asylum.

7. Treaties: Formation, application, termination and reservation.

8. United Nations: Its principal organs, powers, functions and reform.

9. Peaceful settlement of disputes –different modes.

10. Lawful recourse to force: aggression, self-defense, intervention.

11. Fundamental principles of international humanitarian law – International conventions and contemporary developments.

12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear – non proliferation treaty, CTBT.

13. International terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, hijacking, international criminal court.

14. New international economic order and monetary law: WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.

15. Protection and improvement of the human environment: International efforts.







Law of Crimes

1. General principles of criminal liability: Mens rea and actus Reus, mens rea in statutory offences.

2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to abolition of capital punishment.

3. Preparation and criminal attempt.

4. General exceptions.

5. Joint and constructive liability.

6. Abetment.

7. Criminal conspiracy.

8. Offences against the State.

9. Offences against public tranquility.

10. Offences against human body.

11. Offences against property.

12. Offences against women.

13. Defamation.

14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

15. Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and subsequent legislative developments.

16. Plea bargaining.


Law of Torts

1. Nature and definition.

2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability; Absolute liability.

3. Vicarious liability including State liability.

4. General defenses.

5. Joint tortfeasors.

6. Remedies.

7. Negligence.

8. Defamation.

9. Nuisance.

10. Conspiracy.

11. False imprisonment.

12. Malicious prosecution.

13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law

1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.

2. Factors vitiating free consent.

3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.

4. Performance and discharge of contracts.

5. Quasi- Contracts.

6. Consequences of breach of contract.

7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.

8. Contract of agency.

9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.

10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.

11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.

12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.

13. Standard form contracts.


Contemporary Legal Developments

1. Public Interest Litigation.

2. Intellectual property rights – Concept, types/prospects.

3. Information Technology Law including

Cyber Laws – Concept, purpose/ prospects.

4. Competition Law- Concept, purpose/ prospects.

5. Alternate Dispute Resolution –

Concept, types/prospects.

6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.

7. Right to Information Act.

8. Trial by media.


The candidate should make a study of the concept and development of management as science and art drawing upon the contributions of leading thinkers of management and apply the concepts to the real life of government and business decision making keeping in view the changes in the strategic and operative environment.


  1. Managerial Function and Process:Concept and Foundations1of Management, Evolution of Management Thoughts; Managerial Functions – Planning, Organizing, Controlling; Decision making; Role of Manager, Managerial skills; Entrepreneurship; Management of innovation; Managing in a global environment, Flexible Systems Management; Social responsibility and managerial ethics; Process and customer orientation; Managerial processes on direct and indirect value chain.
  2. Organisational Behaviour and Design:Conceptual model of organization behaviour; The individual processes – personality, values and attitude, perception, motivation, learning and reinforcement, work stress and stress management; The dynamics of organization behaviour – power and politics, conflict and negotiation, leadership process and styles, communication; The Organizational Processes - decision making, job design; Classical, Neoclassical and Contingency approaches to organizational design; Organizational theory and design - organizational culture, managing cultural diversity, learning organization; organizational change and development; Knowledge Based Enterprise – systems and processes; Networked and virtual organizations.
  3. Human Resource Management:HR challenges; HRM functions; The future challenges of HRM; Strategic Management of human resources; Human resource planning; Job analysis; Job evaluation; Recruitment and selection; Training and development; Promotion and transfer; Performance management; Compensation management and benefits; Employee morale and productivity; Management of organizational climate and Industrial relations; Human resources accounting and audit; Human resource information system; International human resource management.
  4. Accounting for Managers:Financial accounting – concept, importance and scope, generally accepted accounting principles, preparation of financial statements with special reference to analysis of a balance sheet and measurement of business income, inventory valuation and depreciation, financial statement analysis, fund flow analysis, the statement of cash flows; Management accounting – concept, need, importance and scope; Cost accounting – records and processes, cost ledger and control accounts, reconciliation and integration between financial and cost accounts; Overhead cost and control, Job and process costing, Budget and budgetary control, Performance budgeting, Zero-base budgeting, relevant costing and costing for decision-making, standard costing and variance analysis, marginal costing and absorption costing.
  5. Financial Management:Goals of finance function; Concepts of value and return; Valuation of bonds and shares; Management of working capital: Estimation and financing; Management of cash, receivables, inventory and current liabilities; Cost of capital; Capital budgeting; Financial and operating leverage; Design of capital structure: theories and practices; Shareholder value creation: dividend policy, corporate financial policy and strategy, management of corporate distress and restructuring strategy; Capital and money markets: institutions and instruments; Leasing, hire purchase and venture capital; Regulation of capital market; Risk and return: portfolio theory; CAPM; APT; Financial derivatives: option, futures, swap; Recent reforms in financial sector.
  6. Marketing Management:Concept, evolution and scope; Marketing strategy formulation and components of marketing plan; Segmenting and targeting the market; Positioning and differentiating the market offering; Analyzing competition; Analyzing consumer markets; Industrial buyer behaviour; Market research; Product strategy; Pricing strategies; Designing and managing Marketing channels; Integrated marketing communications; Building customer satisfaction, Value and retention; Services and non-profit marketing; Ethics in marketing; Consumer protection; Internet marketing; Retail management; Customer relationship management; Concept of holistic marketing.


  1. Quantitative Techniques in Decision Making:Descriptive statistics – tabular, graphical and numerical methods, introduction to probability, discrete and continuous probability distributions, inferential statistics sampling distributions, central limit theorem, hypothesis testing for differences between means and proportions, inference about population variances, Chisquare and ANOVA, simple correlation and regression, time series and forecasting, decision theory, index numbers; Linear programming – problem formulation, simplex method and graphical solution, sensitivity analysis.
  2. Production and Operations Management:Fundamentals of operations management; Organizing for production; Aggregate production planning, capacity planning, plant design: process planning, plant size and scale of operations, Management of facilities; Line balancing; Equipment replacement and maintenance; Production control; Supply chain management - vendor evaluation and audit; Quality management; Statistical process control, Six Sigma; Flexibility and agility in manufacturing systems; World class manufacturing; Project management concepts, R&D management, Management of service operations; Role and importance of materials management, value analysis, make or buy decision; Inventory control, MRP; Waste management.
  3. Management Information System:Conceptual foundations of information systems; Information theory; Information resource management; Types of information systems; Systems development - Overview of systems and design; System development management life-cycle, Designing for online and distributed environments; Implementation and control of project; Trends in information technology; Managing data resources - Organising data; DSS and RDBMS; Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Expert systems, e-Business architecture, e-Governance; Information systems planning, Flexibility in information systems; User involvement; Evaluation of information systems.
  4. Government Business Interface:State participation in business, Interaction between Government, Business and different Chambers of Commerce and Industry in India; Government’s policy with regard to Small Scale Industries; Government clearances for establishing a new enterprise; Public Distribution System; Government control over price and distribution; Consumer Protection Act (CPA) and The Role of voluntary organizations in protecting consumers’ rights; New Industrial Policy of the Government: liberalization, deregulation and privatisation; Indian planning system; Government policy concerning development of Backward areas/regions; The Responsibilities of the business as well as the Government to protect the environment; Corporate Governance; Cyber Laws.
  5. Strategic Management:Business policy as a field of study; Nature and scope of strategic management, Strategic intent, vision, objectives and policies; Process of strategic planning and implementation; Environmental analysis and internal analysis; SWOT analysis; Tools and techniques for strategic analysis - Impact matrix: The experience curve, BCG matrix, GEC mode, Industry analysis, Concept of value chain; Strategic profile of a firm; Framework for analysing competition; Competitive advantage of a firm; Generic competitive strategies; Growth strategies – expansion, integration and diversification; Concept of core competence, Strategic flexibility; Reinventing strategy; Strategy and structure; Chief Executive and Board; Turnaround management; Management of strategic change; Strategic alliances, Mergers and Acquisitions; Strategy and corporate evolution in the Indian context.
  6. International Business:International Business Environment: Changing composition of trade in goods and services; India’s Foreign Trade: Policy and trends; Financing of International trade; Regional Economic Cooperation; FTAs; Internationalisation of service firms; International production; Operation Management in International companies; International Taxation; Global competitiveness and technological developments; Global e-Business; Designing global organisational structure and control; Multicultural management; Global business strategy; Global marketing strategies; Export Management; Export Import procedures; Joint Ventures; Foreign Investment: Foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment; Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions; Foreign Exchange Risk Exposure Management; World Financial Markets and International Banking; External Debt Management; Country Risk Analysis.




(1) Linear Algebra:

Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimension; Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation.

Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution of system of linear equations; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, characteristic polynomial, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Symmetric, skew-symmetric, Hermitian, skew-Hermitian, orthogonal and unitary matrices and their eigenvalues.

(2) Calculus:

Real numbers, functions of a real variable, limits, continuity, differentiability, meanvalue theorem, Taylor’s theorem with remainders, indeterminate forms, maxima and minima, asymptotes; Curve tracing; Functions of two or three variables: limits, continuity, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, Lagrange’s method of multipliers, Jacobian.

Riemann’s definition of definite integrals; Indefinite integrals; Infinite and improper integrals; Double and triple integrals (evaluation techniques only); Areas, surface and volumes.

(3) Analytic Geometry:

Cartesian and polar coordinates in three dimensions, second degree equations in three variables, reduction to canonical forms, straight lines, shortest distance between two skew lines; Plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, paraboloid, ellipsoid, hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties.

(4) Ordinary Differential Equations:

Formulation of differential equations; Equations of first order and first degree, integrating factor; Orthogonal trajectory; Equations of first order but not of first degree, Clairaut’s equation, singular solution.

Second and higher order linear equations with constant coefficients, complementary function, particular integral and general solution.

Second order linear equations with variable coefficients, Euler-Cauchy equation; Determination of complete solution when one solution is known using method of variation of parameters.

Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms and their properties; Laplace transforms of elementary functions. Application to initial value problems for 2nd order linear equations with constant coefficients.

(5) Dynamics & Statics:

Rectilinear motion, simple harmonic motion, motion in a plane, projectiles; constrained motion; Work and energy, conservation of energy; Kepler’s laws, orbits under central forces. Equilibrium of a system of particles; Work and potential energy, friction; common catenary; Principle of virtual work; Stability of equilibrium, equilibrium of forces in three dimensions.

(6) Vector Analysis:

Scalar and vector fields, differentiation of vector field of a scalar variable; Gradient, divergence and curl in cartesian and cylindrical coordinates; Higher order derivatives; Vector identities and vector equations. Application to geometry: Curves in space, Curvature and torsion; Serret-Frenet’s formulae. Gauss and Stokes’ theorems, Green’s identities.


(1) Algebra:

Groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, cosets, Lagrange’s Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphism of groups, basic isomorphism theorems, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem.

Rings, subrings and ideals, homomorphisms of rings; Integral domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains and unique factorization domains; Fields, quotient fields.

(2) Real Analysis:

Real number system as an ordered field with least upper bound property; Sequences, limit of a sequence, Cauchy sequence, completeness of real line; Series and its convergence, absolute and conditional convergence of series of real and complex terms, rearrangement of series. Continuity and uniform continuity of functions, properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann integral, improper integrals; Fundamental theorems of integral calculus.

Uniform convergence, continuity, differentiability and integrability for sequences and series of functions; Partial derivatives of functions of several (two or three) variables, maxima and minima.

(3) Complex Analysis:

Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, power series representation of an analytic function, Taylor’s series; Singularities; Laurent’s series; Cauchy’s residue theorem; Contour integration.

(4) Linear Programming:

Linear programming problems, basic solution, basic feasible solution and optimal solution; Graphical method and simplex method of solutions; Duality. Transportation and assignment problems.

(5) Partial differential equations:

Family of surfaces in three dimensions and formulation of partial differential equations; Solution of quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order, Cauchy’s method of characteristics; Linear partial differential equations of the second order with constant coefficients, canonical form; Equation of a vibrating string, heat equation, Laplace equation and their solutions.

(6) Numerical Analysis and Computer programming:

Numerical methods: Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula- Falsi and Newton-Raphson methods; solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct), Gauss-Seidel(iterative) methods. Newton’s (forward and backward) interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation. Numerical integration: Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rules, Gaussian quadrature formula. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: Euler and Runga Kutta-methods. Computer Programming: Binary system; Arithmetic and logical operations on numbers; Octal and Hexadecimal systems; Conversion to and from decimal systems; Algebra of binary numbers. Elements of computer systems and concept of memory; Basic logic gates and truth tables, Boolean algebra,

normal forms. Representation of unsigned integers, signed integers and reals, double precision reals and long integers.

Algorithms and flow charts for solving numerical analysis problems.

(7) Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics:

Generalized coordinates; D’ Alembert’s principle and Lagrange’s equations; Hamilton equations; Moment of inertia; Motion of rigid bodies in two dimensions. Equation of continuity; Euler’s equation of motion for inviscid flow; Stream-lines, path of a particle; Potential flow; Two-dimensional and axisymmetric motion; Sources and sinks, vortex motion; Navier-Stokes equation for a viscous fluid.

Mechanical Engineering

Paper I

 Theory of Machines

  • Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms.
  • Cams, Gears and gear trains, Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors, Balancing of single and multi-cylinder engines, Linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree and two degrees of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts, Automatic Controls, Belts and chain drives. Hydrodynamic bearings.

Mechanics of Solids

  • Stress and strain in two dimensions. Principal stresses and strains, Mohr’s construction, linear elastic materials, isotropy and an isotropy, Stress-strain relations, uniaxial loading, thermal stresses.
  • Beams: Banding moment and shear force diagrams, bending stresses and deflection of beams, Shear stress distribution. Torsion of shafts, helical springs.
  • Combined stresses, thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns, Strain energy concepts and theories of failure. Rotating discs. Shrink fits.

Engineering Materials

  • Basic concepts on structure of solids, Crystalline materials, Defects in crystalline materials, Alloys and binary phase diagrams, structure and properties of common engineering materials.
  • Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, Ceramics and composite Materials, common applications of various materials.

Manufacturing Science

  • Marchant’s force analysis, Taylor’s tool life equation, machinability and machining economics, Rigid, small and flexible automation, NC, CNC. Recent machining methods- EDM, ECM and ultrasonics.
  • Application of lasers and plasmas, analysis of forming processes. High energy rate forming. Jigs, fixtures, tools and gauges, Inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.

Manufacturing management

  • Production Planning and Control, Forecasting-Moving average, exponential smoothing, Operations scheduling; assembly line balancing. Product development. Breakeven analysis, Capacity planning. PERT and CPM.
  • Control Operations: Inventory control-ABC analysis. EOQ model. Materials requirement planning. Job design, Job standards, work measurement, Quality management-Quality control. Operations Research : Linear programming-Graphical and Simplex methods. Transportation and assignment models. Single server queuing model.
  • Value Engineering: Value analysis, for cost/value. Total quality management and forecasting techniques. Project management.

Elements of Computation

  • Computer Organisation, Flow charting.
  • Features of Common Computer Languages-FORTRAN d Base III, Lotus 1-2-3 C and elementary programming.

 Paper II


  • Basic concept. Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermodynamic Laws, Gas equations, Clapeyron equation, Availability, Irreversibility and Tds relations.

I.C. Engines, Fuels and Combustion:

  • Spark ignition and compression ignition engines, four stroke engine and two stroke engines, mechanical, thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance.
  • Combustion process in S.I. and C.I. engines, preignition detonation in S.I. engine Diesel knock in C.I. engine. Choice of engine fuels, Octane and Cetane ratings. Alternate fuels Carburration and Fuel injection, Engine emissions and control. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, stoichometric air requirements and excess air factor, fuel gas analysis, higher and lower calorific values and their measurements.

Heat Transfer, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

  • One and two dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, heat transfer by forced and free convection. Heat exchangers. Fundamentals for diffusive and connective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange between black and non black surfaces, Network Analysis. Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers, evaporators and expansion devices and controls.
  • Properties and choice of refrigerant, Refrigeration Systems and components, psychometrics, comfort indices, cooling loading calculations, solar refrigeration.

Turbo-Machines and Power Plants

  • Continuity, momentum and Energy Equations. Adiabatic and Isentropic flow, fanon lines, Raylegh lines.
  • Theory and design of axial flow turbines and compressors, Flow through turbo-machine blade, cascades, centrifugal compressor. Dimensional analysis and modeling.
  • Selection of site for steam, hydro, nuclear and stand-by power plants, Selection base and peak load power plants, Modern High pressure, High duty boilers, Draft and dust removal equipment, Fuel and cooling water systems, heat balance, station and plant heat rates, operation and maintenance of various power plants, preventive maintenance, economics of power generation.

Medical Science

 Paper I


Human Anatomy

  • Gross and microscopic anatomy and movements of shoulder, hip and knee joints; Blood supply, nerve innervations of hand, Lymphatic system; Karyotyping, medical genetics; Electron microscopic structure of glomerulous and muscle; Gross and microscopic anatomy and blood supply of lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, testis and uterus; Gross anatomy of pelvis, perineum and inguinal region. Cross-sectional anatomy of the body and mid-thoracic, upper abdominal, mid-abdominal and pelvic regions.
  • Embryology: Major steps in the development of lung, heart, kidney, urinary bladder, uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities; Placenta and placental barrier.

Anatomy of central and peripheral autonomic nervous system :

  • Neural pathways for coetaneous sensations and vision; Cranial nerves, distribution and clinical significance; Anatomy of autonomic control of gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems.

Human Physiology

  • Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous. system; Nerve and muscle excitation, conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neurovascular transmission, EMG; Synaptic transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone descending pathways, functions of cerebellum, basal ganglia, reticular formation, hypothalamus limbic system and cerebral cortex; Physiology of sleep and consciousness, EEG.; Higher functions of the brain; Vision and hearing.
  • Endocrine system: Mechanism of action of hormones, formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, functions and regulations of secretion of pancreas and pituitary glands.
  • Physiology of reproductive system: menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy.
  • Blood: Development, regulations and fate of blood cells.
  • Cardio-vascular, respiratory gastro-intestinal and renal physiology: Cardiac excitation, spread of cardiac impulse, ECG., cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions; Mechanics of respiration and regulation of respiration; Digestion and absorption of food, regulation of secretion and motility of gastrointestinal tract; Glomerular and tubular functions of kidney.


  • pH and pK Hendrson-Hassebalch Equation; Properties and regulation of enzyme activity, role of high energy phosphates in bioenergetics; Sources, daily requirements, action and toxicity of vitamins; Metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, disorders of their metabolism; Chemical nature, structure, synthesis and functions of nucleic acids and proteins; Distribution and regulation of body water and minerals including trace elements; Blood Gas Analysis, GTT, Immuno electrophoreses, molecular structure of muscle contractile protein, estrogen receptors.

Section B


  • Reaction of cell and tissue of injury, inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer. genetic diseases; Pathogenesis and histopathology of Rheumatic and ischemic heart disease; Bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer colon.
  • Lymphoma, leukaemia, liver cancer, meningioma and meningitis; Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of - Peptic ulcer, cirrhosis liver glomerulonephritis, lobar pneumonia, acute osteomyelitis, hepatitis, acute pancreatis.


  • Growth of micro-organisms, sterilization and disinfection, bacterial genetics, virus-cell interactions; Immunological principles, acquired immunity, immunity in infections cause by viruses; Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of Staphylococcus, enterococcus, salmonella, shigella, secheichiza, pseudomonas, vibrio, adenoviruses, herpes viruses (including rubella_, fungi, protozoa, helminthes, leptospiral infection.


  • Drug receptor instruction, mechanism of drug action; Mechanism of action, dosage, metabolism and side effects of - Pilocarpine, terbutaline, metoprolol diazepam, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, furosemide, metronidazole. Chloroquin. Mechanism of action, dosage and toxicity of- Ampicillin, Cephalosporins, 1,2,3,4,th generations, Aminoglycoside, Doxycycline, chloramphenicol, rifampin, Calcium channel blocker, beta blocker, ace inhibitors, immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Indications, dosage, side-effects and contraindications of- Methortrexate, vincristin, tamoxifen. Classification, route of administration, mechanism of action and side effects of - General anesthetics, hypnotics, analgesics, Anti-viral, anti-fungal drugs.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Physical and chemical examination of blood and seminal stains; Organo phosphorous poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, snake envenomation. 

Paper II

 Section A

General Medicine: Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of:

  • Malaria, Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus, Rabies, Exanthematous Fevers, Tuberculosis, AIDS.
  • Rheumatic, ischemic and congenital heart disease, hypertension. Cardiomyopathy, pulmonary embolism.
  • Acute and chronic respiratory infections, bronchial asthma.
  • Occupational lung disease, pleural effusion, disseminated tuberculosis Malabsorption syndromes, acid peptic diseases, haemetemesis. Viral hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease.
  • Acute glomerulonerphritis, chronic pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, diabetes mellitus, anemia, coagulation disorders, leukemia, polycythemia and hyperviscosity syndrome, meningitis encephalitis, carebrovascular diseases.
  • Role of Immageology in the work-up of medical problems, ultrasound, echo cardiogram, CT scan MRI.
  • Psychiatry: Common psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia. ECT, lithium.


  • Common pediatric problems, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho pneumonias, kernicterus. Aids- prevention of vertical transmission.


  • Common skin diseases, psoriasis, Hansen's disease, fungal dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnsons's syndrome.

Section B

General Surgery: Clinical features, causes diagnosis and principles of management of:

  • Cervical lymph node enlargement, parotid tumor, oral cancer, cleft palate, hare lip.
  • Laryngeal tumor, esophageal tumors.
  • Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose veins, coarctation of aorta.
  • Dysfunctions of thyroid parathyroids and adrenals.
  • Tumors of Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pituitary Glands.
  • Abscess of breast, cancer breast, fibroadenoma and adenosis.
  • Acute and chronic appendicitis, bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of bowel, intestinal obstruction, ulcerative colitis.
  • Renal mass, acute retention of urine, benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Haemonthorax, constrictive pericarditis.
  • Splenomegaly, chronic cholexystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas.
  • Direct and indirect inguinal hernias and their complications.
  • Fractures of femur and spine, Colles' fracture and bone tumors.
  • Organ transplantation, kidney, liver, heart, bone-marrow.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery.

Obstetrics and gynecology including Family Planning

  • Diagnosis of pregnancy, screening of high risk pregnancy, foetoplacental development.
  • Labour management, complications of 3rd stage, postpartum haemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn.
  • Diagnosis and management of anaemia and pregnancy induced hypertension.
  • Principles of the following contraceptive methods: Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy.
  • Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects.
  • Etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of: Cancer cervix, Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain, infertility, abnormal uterine bleeding, amenorrhoea.

Preventive and Social medicine

  • Concept of causation and control of disease in the community, principles and methods of epidemiology.
  • Health hazards due to environmental pollution and industrialisation.
  • Normal nutrition and nutritional deficiency diseases in India.
  • Population trends (World and India),
  • Growth of population and its effect on health and development.
  • Objectives, components and critical analysis of each of the following National programmes for the control/eradication of:
  • Malaria, filaria, kala-azar, leprosy, tuberculosis, cancer, blindness, iodine deficiency disease, AIDS & STD and guinea worm.
  • Objectives, components critical analysis of each of the following national Health and Family Welfare Programmes:
  • Maternal and child health
  • Family welfare
  • Nutrition
  • Immunization


Paper I


History and Problems of Philosophy:

  1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
  2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
  3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
  4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
  5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
  6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture

Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.

  1. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
  2. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language- games; Critique of Private Language.
  3. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
  4. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
  5. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
  6. Cârvâka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
  7. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaòginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
  8. Schools of Buddhism: Pratîtyasamutpâda; Ksanikavada,


  1. Nyâya- Vaiúesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of

Pramâna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

  1. Sâmkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
  2. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
  3. Mimâmsâ: Theory of Knowledge
  4. Schools of Vedânta: Brahman; Îúvara; Âtman; Jiva; Jagat; Mâyâ; Avidyâ; Adhyâsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
  5. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.


Socio-Political Philosophy

  1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
  2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
  3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
  4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
  5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
  6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
  7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
  8. Development and Social Progress.
  9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowerment.
  10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar


Philosophy of Religion:

  1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
  3. Problem of Evil.
  4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
  6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
  7. Religion without God.
  8. Religion and Morality.
  9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
  10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non-Cognitive


Paper I

  1. (a) Mechanics of Particles :

Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy; Two-body problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and laboratory reference frames.

(b) Mechanics of Rigid Bodies :

System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid Body; Degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity, angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation; Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di and triatomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.

(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media :

Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Stokes’ law and applications.

(d) Special Relativity :

Michelson-Morely experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process. Four dimensional momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.

  1. Waves and Optics :

(a) Waves :

Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and refraction from Huygens’ principle.

(b) Geometrial Optics :

Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s principle; Matrix method in paraxial optic-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.

(c) Interference :

Interference of light -Young’s experiment, Newton’s rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam interference and Fabry Perot interferometer.

(d) Diffraction :

Fraunhofer diffraction - single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture.

(e) Polarisation and Modern Optics :

Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; Material dispersion, single mode fibers; Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients. Ruby and He-Ne lasers. Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams. Three-level scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.

  1. Electricity and Magnetism :

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics :

Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential; Method of images and its applications. Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field; Dielectrics, polarisation. Solutions to boundary-value problems-conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetised sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.

(b) Current Electricity :

Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law. Self-and mutualinductances; Mean and rms values in AC circuits; DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components; Series and parallel resonance; Quality factor; Principle of transformer.

  1. Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation :

Displacement current and Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel’s relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck ’s radiation law- Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans law.

  1. Thermal and Statistical Physics :

(a) Thermodynamics

Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential; Van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; MaxwellBoltzmann distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and application; Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.

(b) Statistical Physics :

Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac Distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

Paper II

  1. Quantum Mechanics :

Wave-particle duality; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals; Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.

  1. Atomic and Molecular Physics :

Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrozen atom; L-S coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect; Franck-Condon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibrational and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.

  1. Nuclear and Particle Physics :

Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications. Mass parabolas; Ground state of a deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear forces; Salient features of nuclear forces; Shell model of the nucleus - success and limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion; Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars. Nuclear reactors.

Classification of elementary particles and their interactions; Conservation laws; Quark structure of hadrons : Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.

  1. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics :

Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids—conductors, insulators and semi-conductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of super-conductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature super-conductivity.

Intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors- p-n-p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers and oscillators. Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan’s laws, Logic gates and truth tables. Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.



Political Theory and Indian Politics

  1. Political theorymeaning and approaches
  2. Theories of the state:Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist.
  3. Justice:Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.
  4. Equality:Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.
  5. Rights:Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; concept of Human Rights.
  6. Democracy:Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy – representative, participatory and deliberative.

7.Concept of power, hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8.Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9.Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist traditions ; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, S r i Aurobindo, M.K. Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy .

10.Western Political Thought :Plato ,Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John,S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Government and politics

1.Indian Nationalism:

  1. Political Strategies of India’s Freedom struggle : constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience ; militant and revolutionary movements, Peasant and workers’ movements.
  2. Perspectives on Indian National Movement: Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical humanist and Dalit.

2.Making of the Indian Constitution: Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.

3.Salient Features of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.


  1. Principal Organs of the Union Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.
  2. Principal Organs of the State Government: Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

5.Grassroots Democracy: Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.

6.Statutory Inst i tut ions/Commissions: Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Comission for scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.

7.Federalism: Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.

8.Planning and Economic Development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalilzation and economic reforms.

9.Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

10.Party System: National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio- economic profile of Legislators.

11.Social Movements: Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements


Comparative Politics and International Relations

  1. Comparative Politics: Nature and major approaches; political economy and political sociology perspectives; limitations of the comparative method.

2.State in comparative perspective: Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and, advanced industrial and developing societies.

  1. Politics of Representation and Participation: Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.
  2. Globalisation: Responses from developed and developing societies.
  3. Approaches to the Study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.
  4. Key concepts in International Relations: National interest, Security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transnational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.
  5. Changing International Political Order:
  1. Rise of super powers; strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and Cold War; nuclear threat;
  2. Non-al igned movement : Aims and achievements;
  3. Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.
  1. Evolution of the International Economic System: From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.
  2. United Nations: Envisaged role and actual record; specialized UN agencies-aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.
  3. Regionalisation of World Politics: EU, ASEAN, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA.
  4. Contemporary Global Concerns: Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice, terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World:

  1. Indian Foreign Policy: Determinants of foreign policy; institutions of policy-making; continuity and change.
  2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement: Different phases; current role
  3. India and South Asia:
  1. Regional Co-operation: SAARC – past performance and future prospects.
  2. South Asia as a Free Trade Area.
  3. India’s “Look East” policy.
  4. Impediments to regional co-operation: river water disputes; illegal cross-border migration; ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; border disputes.
  1. India and the Global South: Relations with Africa and Latin America; leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.
  2. India and the Global Centres of Power: USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.
  3. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.
  4. India and the Nuclear Question: Changing perceptions and policy.
  5. Recent developments in Indian Foreign policy: India’s position on the recent crisis in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Israel; vision of a new world order.



Foundations of Psychology


Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and

scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.

2. Methods of Psychology:

Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research: Survey,observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental design,Quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.

3. Research Methods:

Major steps in Psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research designs, sampling,tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing) Fundamental versus applied research;Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire); Research designs (ex-post facto andexperimental); Application of statistical technique (t - test, two way ANOVA correlation, regression and factoranalysis); Item response theory.

4. Development of Human Behaviour:

Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determininghuman behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development Characteristics,development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.

5. Sensation, Attention and Perception:

Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors

influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defencefactorsinfluencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.

6. Learning:

Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models); The Processes of extinction, discrimination and generalization; Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional learning, concepts; Types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment,modeling and social learning.

7. Memory:

Encoding and remembering; Short term memory, Long term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.

8. Thinking and Problem Solving:

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoningand problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving:Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgment; Recent trends.

9. Motivation and Emotion:

Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion;Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.

10. Intelligence and Aptitude:

Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence Spearman, Thurstone, Gullford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P; Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of IQ, deviation IQ, constancy of IQ; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

11. Personality:

Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal,

developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.

12. Attitudes, Values and Interests:

Definition of attitudes, values and interests Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes; Measurement of attitudes, values and interests; Theories of attitude change; Strategies for fostering values; Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing others behaviour; Theories of attribution; Recent trends.

13. Language and Communication:

Human language - Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis; Theories of language development Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication - effective communication training.

14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology:

Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation,

hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perceptionSimulation studies.


Psychology: Issues and Applications

1.Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences:

The nature of individual differences; Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests;

Types of psychological tests; Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests; hical issues in the use of psychological tests.

2. Psychological well being and Mental Disorders:

Concept of health-ill health; Positive health, well being; Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders);

Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life; Happiness disposition.

3. Therapeutic Approaches:

Psychodynamic therapies; Behaviour therapies; Client centered therapy; Cognitive therapies; Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation); Bio-feedback therapy; Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill; Fostering mental health.

4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour:

Personnel selection and training; Use of psychological tests in the industry; Training and human resource development; Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadership; Sensitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.

5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field:

Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process; Learning styles; Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training; Training for improving memory and better academic achievement; Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling; Use of

psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes.

6. Community Psychology:

Definition and concept of community psychology; Use of small groups in social action; Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems; Group decision making and leadership for social change; Effective strategies for social change.

7. Rehabilitation Psychology:

Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists; Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons, Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviour; Rehabilitation of victims of violence, Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies.

8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups:

The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation; Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups; Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.

9. Psychological problems of social integration:

The concept of social integration; The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice;Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group; Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices; Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices; Measures to achieve social integration.

10. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media:

The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists; Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media; Distance learning through IT and mass media; Entrepreneurship through e-commerce; Multilevel marketing; Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media; Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.

11. Psychology and Economic development:

Achievement motivation and economic development; Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour; Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs.

12. Application of psychology to environment and related fields:

Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding; Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density; Motivating for small family norm; Impact

of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.

13. Application of psychology in other fields:

(a)Military Psychology

Devising psychological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling; training psychologists to work with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence.

(b) Sports Psychology

Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.

(c) Media influences on pro and antisocial behaviour.

(d) Psychology of terrorism.

14. Psychology of Gender:

Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self fulfilling prophesy, Women and Indian society.





  1. Introduction:

Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration;  Wilson’s vision of Public Administration;  Evolution of the discipline and its present status;  New Public Administration;  Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation;  Good Governance: concept and application;  New Public Management.

  1. Administrative Thought:

Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model : its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others);  Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor).

  1. Administrative Behaviour:

Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories: content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern.

  1. Organisations:

Theories: systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public - Private Partnerships.

  1. Accountability and control:

Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.

  1. Administrative Law:

Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.

  1. Comparative Public Administration:

Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.

  1. Development Dynamics:

Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti-development thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development - the self-help group movement.

  1. Personnel Administration:

Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.

  1. Public Policy:

Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.

  1.  Techniques of Administrative Improvement:

Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.

  1.  Financial Administration:

Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets - types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.





  1. Evolution of Indian Administration:

Kautilya’s Arthashastra; Mughal administration;  Legacy of British rule in politics and administration - Indianization of public services, revenue administration, district administration, local self-government.

  1.  Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government:

Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.

  1.  Public Sector Undertakings:

Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and control; Impact of liberalization and privatization.

  1.  Union Government and Administration:

Executive, Parliament, Judiciary - structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends;  Intragovernmental relations;  Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.

  1.  Plans and Priorities:

Machinery of planning;  Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council;  ‘Indicative’ planning;  Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels;  Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.

  1.  State Government and Administration:

Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations;  Role of the Finance Commission;  Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.

  1.  District Administration since Independence:

Changing role of the Collector; Union-state-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.

  1.  Civil Services:

Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity-building;  Good governance initiatives;  Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.

  1.  Financial Management:

Budget as a political instrument;  Parliamentary control of public expenditure;  Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area;  Accounting techniques; Audit;  Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

  1.  Administrative Reforms since Independence:

Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.

  1.  Rural Development:

Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural development programmes:  foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.

  1.  Urban Local Government:

Municipal governance:  main features, structures, finance and problem areas;  74th Constitutional Amendment;  Global-local debate; New localism;  Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management.

  1.  Law and Order Administration:

British legacy;  National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies including paramilitary forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism;  Criminalisation of politics and administration;  Police-public relations;  Reforms in Police.

  1.  Significant issues in Indian Administration:

Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen-administration interface; Corruption and administration;   Disaster management.





  1. Sociology - The Discipline:

(a)       Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.

(b)       Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.

(c)        Sociology and common sense.


  1. Sociology as Science:

(a)       Science, scientific method and critique.

(b)       Major theoretical strands of research methodology.

(c)        Positivism and its critique.

(d)       Fact value and objectivity.

(e)       Non- positivist methodologies.


  1. Research Methods and Analysis:

(a)       Qualitative and quantitative methods.

(b)       Techniques of data collection.

(c)        Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.


  1. Sociological Thinkers:

(a)       Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.

(b)       Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.

(c)        Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.

(d)       Talcolt Parsons-   Social system, pattern variables.

(e)       Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and  deviance, reference groups

(f)         Mead   - Self and identity.


  1. Stratification and Mobility:

(a)       Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and  deprivation

(b)       Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.

(c)        Dimensions : Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity      and race.

(d)       Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.


  1. Works and Economic Life:

(a)               Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society,  feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.

(b)               Formal and informal organization of work

(c)               Labour and society.


  1. Politics and Society:

(a)               Sociological theories of power

(b)               Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.

(c)               Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.

(d)               Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.


  1. Religion and Society:

(a)               Sociological theories of religion.

(b)               Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.

(c)               Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.


  1. Systems of Kinship:

(a)               Family, household, marriage.

(b)               Types and forms of family.

(c)               Lineage and descent

(d)                Patriarchy and sexual division of labour

(e)               Contemporary trends.

  1. Social Change in Modern Society:

(a)               Sociological theories of social change.

(b)               Development and dependency.

(c)               Agents of social change.

(d)               Education and social change.

(e)               Science, technology and social change.




  1. Introducing Indian Society:

(i)         Perspectives on the study of Indian society:

(a)       Indology  (GS. Ghurye).

(b)       Structural functionalism  (M N Srinivas).

(c)        Marxist sociology  ( A R Desai).


(ii)        Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

(a)       Social background of Indian nationalism.

(b)       Modernization of Indian tradition.

(c)        Protests and movements during the colonial period.

(d)       Social reforms


  1. Social Structure:

(i)         Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

(a)       The idea of Indian village and village studies-

(b)       Agrarian social structure -evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.


(ii)        Caste System:

(a)       Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.

(b)       Features of caste system.

(c)        Untouchability - forms and perspectives


(iii)       Tribal communities in India:

(a)       Definitional problems.

(b)       Geographical spread.

(c)        Colonial policies and tribes.

(d)       Issues of integration and autonomy.


(iv)      Social Classes in India:

(a)       Agrarian class structure.

(b)       Industrial class structure.

(c)        Middle classes in India.


(v)       Systems of Kinship in India:

(a)       Lineage and descent in India.

(b)       Types of kinship systems.

(c)        Family and marriage in India.

(d)       Household dimensions of the family.

(e)       Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.


(vi)      Religion and Society:

(a)       Religious communities in India.

(b)       Problems of religious minorities.


  1. Social Changes in India:

(i)         Visions of Social Change in India:

(a)       Idea of development planning and mixed economy.1

(b)       Constitution, law and social change.

(c)        Education and social change.


(ii)        Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

(a)       Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.

(b)       Green revolution and social change.

(c)        Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .

(d)       Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.


(iii)       Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

(a)       Evolution of modern industry in India.

(b)       Growth of urban settlements in India.

(c)        Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.

(d)       Informal sector, child labour

(e)       Slums and deprivation in urban areas.


(iv)      Politics and Society:

(a)       Nation, democracy and citizenship.

(b)       Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.

(c)        Regionalism and decentralization of power.

(d)       Secularization


(v)       Social Movements in Modern India:

(a)       Peasants and farmers movements.

(b)       Women’s movement.

(c)        Backward classes & Dalit movement.

(d)       Environmental movements.

(e)       Ethnicity and Identity movements.


(vi)      Population Dynamics:

(a)       Population size, growth, composition and distribution.

(b)       Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.

(c)        Population policy and family planning.

(d)       Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.


(vii)     Challenges of Social Transformation:

(a)       Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.

(b)       Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.

(c)        Violence against women.

(d)       Caste conflicts.

(e)       Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.

(f)         Illiteracy and disparities in education.



  1. Probability:

Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable

function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable, probability

mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional

distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random variables, expectation and moments of a

random variable, conditional expectation, convergence of a sequence of random variable in distribution, in

probability, in p-th mean and almost everywhere, their criteria and inter-relations, Chebyshev’s inequality and

Khintchine‘s weak law of large numbers, strong law of large numbers and Kolmogoroff’s theorems,

probability generating function, moment generating function, characteristic function, inversion theorem,

Linderberg and Levy forms of central limit theorem, standard discrete and continuous probability distributions.

  1. Statistical Inference:

Consistency, unbiasedness, efficiency, sufficiency, completeness, ancillary statistics, factorization theorem,

exponential family of distribution and its properties, uniformly minimum variance unbiased (UMVU)

estimation, Rao-Blackwell and Lehmann-Scheffe theorems, Cramer-Rao inequality for single parameter.

Estimation by methods of moments, maximum likelihood, least squares, minimum chi-square and modified

minimum chi-square, properties of maximum likelihood and other estimators, asymptotic efficiency, prior and

posterior distributions, loss function, risk function, and minimax estimator. Bayes estimators.

Non-randomised and randomised tests, critical function, MP tests, Neyman-Pearson lemma, UMP tests,

monotone likelihood ratio, similar and unbiased tests, UMPU tests for single parameter likelihood ratio test and

its asymptotic distribution. Confidence bounds and its relation with tests.

Kolmogoroff’s test for goodness of fit and its consistency, sign test and its optimality.

Wald’s SPRT and its properties, OC and ASN functions for tests regarding parameters for Bernoulli, Poisson,

normal and exponential distributions. Wald’s fundamental identity

  1. Linear Inference and Multivariate Analysis:

Linear statistical models’, theory of least squares and analysis of variance, Gauss-Markoff theory, normal

equations, least squares estimates and their precision, test of significance and interval estimates based on least

squares theory in one-way, two-way and three-way classified data, regression analysis, linear regression,

curvilinear regression and orthogonal polynomials, multiple regression, multiple and partial correlations,

estimation of variance and covariance components, multivariate normal distribution, Mahalanobis-D2 and

Hotelling’s T2 statistics and their applications and properties, discriminant analysis, canonical correlations,

principal component analysis

  1. Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments:

Fixed effects model (two-way classification) random and mixed effects models (two-way classification with

equal observation per cell), CRD, RBD, LSD and their analyses, incomplete block designs, concepts of

orthogonality and balance, BIBD, missing plot technique, factorial experiments and 2n and 32, confounding in

factorial experiments, split-plot and simple lattice designs, transformation of data Duncan’s multiple range test.


  1. Industrial Statistics:

Process and product control, general theory of control charts, different types of control charts for variables and

attributes, X, R, s, p, np and c charts, cumulative sum chart. Single, double, multiple and sequential sampling

plans for attributes, OC, ASN, AOQ and ATI curves, concepts of producer’s and consumer’s risks, AQL,

LTPD and AOQL, Sampling plans for variables, Use of Dodge-Roming tables.

Concept of reliability, failure rate and reliability functions, reliability of series and parallel systems and other

simple configurations, renewal density and renewal function, Failure models: exponential, Weibull, normal,


Problems in life testing, censored and truncated experiments for exponential models.

  1. Optimization Techniques:

Different types of models in Operations Research, their construction and general methods of solution,

simulation and Monte-Carlo methods formulation of linear programming (LP) problem, simple LP model and

its graphical solution, the simplex procedure, the two-phase method and the M-technique with artificial

variables, the duality theory of LP and its economic interpretation, sensitivity analysis, transportation and

assignment problems, rectangular games, two person zero-sum games, methods of solution (graphical and


Replacement of failing or deteriorating items, group and individual replacement policies, concept of scientific

inventory management and analytical structure of inventory problems, simple models with deterministic and

stochastic demand with and without lead time, storage models with particular reference to dam type.

Homogeneous discrete-time Markov chains, transition probability matrix, classification of states and ergodic

theorems, homogeneous continuous-time Markov chains, Poisson process, elements of queuing theory, M/M/1,

M/M/K, G/M/1 and M/G/1 queues.

Solution of statistical problems on computers using well-known statistical software packages like SPSS

  1. Quantitative Economics and Official Statistics:

Determination of trend, seasonal and cyclical components, Box-Jenkins method, tests for stationary series,

ARIMA models and determination of orders of autoregressive and moving average components, forecasting

Commonly used index numbersLaspeyre’s, Paasche’s and Fisher’s ideal index numbers, chain-base index

number, uses and limitations of index numbers, index number of wholesale prices, consumer prices,

agricultural production and industrial production, test for index numbers proportionality, time-reversal factor-reversal and circular.

General linear model, ordinary least square and generalized least squares methods of estimation, problem of

multi-collinearity, consequences and solutions of mult-icollinearity, auto-correlation and its consequences,

heteroscedasticity of disturbances and its testing, test for independence of disturbances, concept of structure

and model for simultaneous equations, problem of identification-rank and order conditions of identifiability,

two-stage least square method of estimation.

Present official statistical system in India relating to population, agriculture, industrial production, trade and

prices, methods of collection of official statistics, their reliability and limitations, principal publications

containing such statistics, various official agencies responsible for data collection and their main functions.

  1. Demography and Psychometry:

Demographic data from census, registration, NSS other surveys, their limitations and uses, definition,

construction and uses of vital rates and ratios, measures of fertility, reproduction rates, morbidity rate,

standardized death rate, complete and abridged life tables, construction of life tables from vital statistics and

census returns, uses of life tables, logistic and other population growth curves, fitting a logistic curve,


projection, stable population, quasi-stable population, techniques in estimation of demographic parameters,

standard classification by cause of death, health surveys and use of hospital statistics.

Methods of standardization of scales and tests, Z-scores, standard scores, T-scores, percentile scores,

intelligence quotient and its measurement and uses, validity and reliability of test scores and its determination,

use of factor analysis and path analysis in psychometry.



  1. Non-chordata and Chordata:

(a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses: Acoelomate and Coelomate, Protostomes

and Deuterostomes, Bilateria and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata;


(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium,

Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishmania.

(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.

(d) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation;

metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.

(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their

pathogenic symptoms.

(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history, parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and Wuchereria.

(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of


earthworm and leach.

(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (Prawn,

cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee

and butterfly); metamorphosis in insect and its hormonal regulation, social behaviour of Apis and termites.

(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia,

torsion and detorsion in gastropods.

(j) Echinodermata: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, larval forms, general features and life history of Asterias.

(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Branchiostoma and Herdmania.

(l) Pisces: Respiration, locomotion and migration.

(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods, parental care, paedomorphosis.

(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles, skull types, status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.

(o) Aves: Origin of birds, flight adaptation, migration.

(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals, dentition, general features of egg laying mammals, pouched-mammals,

aquatic mammals and primates, endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads)

and their interrelationships.

(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives,

endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and

aortic arches, urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

  1. Ecology:

(a) Biosphere: Concept of biosphere; biomes, Biogeochemical cycles, Human induced changes in atmosphere

including green house effect, ecological succession, biomes and ecotones, community ecology.

(b) Concept of ecosystem; structure and function of ecosystem, types of ecosystem, ecological succession,

ecological adaptation.

(c) Population; characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.

(d) Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources.

(e) Wildlife of India.

(f) Remote sensing for sustainable development.

(g) Environmental biodegradation, pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

  1. Ethology:

(a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering, reponsive-ness, sign stimuli, learning and memory, instinct, habituation,

conditioning, imprinting.

(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator

tactics, social hierarchies in primates, social organization in insects.

(c) Orientation, navigation, homing, biological rhythms, biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian


(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour including sexual conflict, selfishness, kinship and altruism.

  1. Economic Zoology:

(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture.

(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases (malaria, filaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their

vectors, pathogens and prevention.

(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogen (helminthes) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).

(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella) oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).

(e) Transgenic animals.

(f) Medical biotechnology, human genetic disease and genetic counselling, gene therapy.

(g) Forensic biotechnology.

  1. Biostatistics:

Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central

tendency, chi square, student-test, F-test (one-way & two-way Ftest).

  1. Instrumentation Methods:

(a) Spectrophotometer, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, radioactive tracer, ultra centrifuge, gel

electrophoresis, PCR, ELISA, FISH and chromosome painting.

(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).


  1. Cell Biology:

(a) Structure and function of cell and its organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies,

endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and lysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and

mitotic apparatus, chromosome movements, chromosome type polytene and lambrush, organization of

chromatin, heterochromatin, Cell cycle regulation.

(b) Nucleic acid topology, DNA motif, DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation, protein

foldings and transport.

  1. Genetics: (a) Modern concept of gene, split gene, genetic regulation, genetic code.

(b) Sex chromosomes and their evolution, sex determination in Drosophila and man.

(c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, multiple alleles, genetics of blood groups, pedigree

analysis, hereditary diseases in man.

(d) Mutations and mutagenesis.

(e) Recombinant DNA technology; plasmid, cosmid, artificial chromosomes as vectors, transgenic, DNA

cloning and whole animal cloning (principles and methods).

(f) Gene regulation and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

(g) Signal molecules, cell death, defects in signaling pathway and consequences.

(h) RFLP, RAPD and AFLP and application of RFLP in DNA finger printing, ribozyme technologies, human

genome project, genomics and protomics.

  1. Evolution:

(a) Theories of origin of life.

(b) Theories of evolution; Natural selection, role of mutations in evolution, evolutionary patterns, molecular


mimicry, variation, isolation and speciation.

(c) Evolution of horse, elephant and man using fossil data.

(d) Hardy-Weinberg Law.

(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.

  1. Systematics:

Zoological nomenclature, international code, cladistics, molecular taxonomy and biodiversity.

  1. Biochemistry:

(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic

acids. Bioenergetics.

  1. b) Glycolysis and Kreb cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and

release, ATP cycle, cyclic AMP – its structure and role.

(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and functions.

(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action.

(e) Vitamins and co-enzymes

(f) Immunoglobulin and immunity.

  1. Physiology (with special reference to mammals):

(a) Composition and constituents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man, factors and mechanism of

coagulation, iron metabolism, acid-base balance, thermo-regulation, anticoagulants.

(b) Haemoglobin: Composition, types and role in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

(c) Digestion and absorption: Role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands.

(d) Excretion: nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmo-regulation and excretory product.

(e) Muscles: Types, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles, effects of exercise on muscles.

(f) Neuron: nerve impulse – its conduction and synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters.

(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.

(h) Physiology of reproduction, puberty and menopause in human.

  1. Developmental Biology:

(a) Gametogenesis; spermatogenesis, composition of semen, in vitro and in vivo capacitation of mammalian

sperm, Oogenesis, totipotency; fertilization, morphogenesis and morphogen, blastogenesis, establishment of

body axes formation, fate map, gestulation in frog and chick; genes in development in chick, homeotic genes,

development of eye and heart, placenta in mammals.

(b) Cell lineage, cell-to cell interaction, Genetic and induced teratogenesis, role of thyroxine in control of

metamorphosis in amphibia, paedogenesis and neoteny, cell death, aging.

(c) Developmental genes in man, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, cloning.

(d) Stem cells: Sources, types and their use in human welfare.

(e) Biogenetic law.

As you start reading the books I mention here for GS mains, please keep the following points in mind: (Feedback 2017 AIR 1 Anudeep)

  1. Along with these books, get a printout of the syllabus and read it carefully. Your final aim must be: for each topic mentioned in the syllabus, you should have enough content to write a 250-word answer.
  2. Go through the past five years’ question papers to understand the breadth and depth of questions UPSC usually asks. It’ll give you a good perspective of what’s important and what’s not.
  3. Use the internet extensively, especially for topics like Science and Tech. Your target must be to gain knowledge, be it through books or through the internet.
  4. For all subjects, you have to superimpose current affairs over it, especially for GS-2 and GS-3. For both these papers, current affairs form the nucleus. You will inevitably do a lot of reading on the internet, so use Evernote to organise and highlight content like this.
  5. Give adequate time for revision. Without it, you will not be able to recollect whatever you may have read. So please dedicate enough time to it, whether you are giving a mock test or the actual exam.
  6. Many aspirants commit one fundamental mistake: they read and revise, over and over, but never practise. Remember that the examiner checking your copy will have no idea about the number of books you’ve read or the number of hours you’ve slogged. Your answers are all that he has to judge you. So it makes sense to learn it, practise it and perfect it.
  7. Mains exam demands not only our memory and intelligence but also endurance. If you lack prior practice, writing relentlessly for 6 hours a day and do this for 5 days will cause both mental and physical fatigue. The only way to overcome it is to practice enough before the final exam.
  8. General Studies demands only a peripheral understanding of an expansive set of topics. So it’s important that you try to gain minimum sufficient knowledge over a diverse set of subjects rather than obsessively focussing on one topic. For instance, it doesn’t make sense to read World History for three months at the expense of all other subjects. Always maintain that fine balance between all the topics and don’t get imprisoned in one.
  9. In GS, there will be very few questions where you will have absolutely no clue. Even if you only have a vague idea, write those generic points. For instance, in last year’s GS-1 paper, for the question on Malay peninsula, I knew no specific fact except a vague idea that Singapore had a partition story similar to India. So I just wrote a generic answer comprising of problems such as ethnic strife, insurgency, and economic collapse. The examiner checking my copy might have given 2-3 marks for it, which I am sure any aspirant would gladly take.
  10. You must develop the skill to speed read a committee or an organisation’s report on your computer (reading online saves you a lot of time) and highlight important lines as you read along. In the second reading, this highlighted portion is what you need to revise. It should look something like this.
  11. In GS papers, map of India is your most effective tool for illustration. For example, I drew India maps and labelled relevant parts for questions on river linkage (GS-3), North-East insurgency (GS-3), Inland navigation (GS-1), India’s 18th-century fragmented polity (GS-1) etc. Practise it enough so that you are able to draw and label it under 60 seconds.
  12. If you are taking a test series, please give those tests with all the seriousness of the final UPSC exam. In the mock test, if you take 10-15 additional minutes to finish the paper, you are cheating no one except yourself. Observe strict time limits.
  13. You will never feel content with your Mains preparation and there is always a nagging tendency to just keep reading and procrastinate writing answers or skip an upcoming test. You have to overcome this reluctance through conscious effort. Suppose before a mock test if you were unable to finish the syllabus, you can postpone your test by a day or two, but don’t skip it altogether.
  14. Perfectionism is your enemy. If you keep referring to countless sources to make that “perfect notes”, if you keep postponing your mock tests in order to write “perfect tests”, this mentality will bring you to ruin. Getting a good score in Mains is about attempting all questions to which some answers are excellent, some good and many above average. So instead of waiting for that elusive perfection, start imperfect and then keep improving.
  15. When you are buying coaching material, always ask yourself: “what new is this material adding to my preparation?” If you can’t answer that question convincingly, then the material probably isn’t really useful.
  16. Just because I am AIR-1, it does not mean that my notes are the best or that this book list is the last word. If you have been studying some other material, that’s fine, too. To succeed in this exam, the source of material is not important. What’s important is you to understand the concepts, memorise the facts well and have a firm grip over the entire syllabus.



The interview will carry 275 marks (with no minimum qualifying marks). Marks thus obtained by the candidates in the Main Examination(written part as well as interview) would determine their final ranking. (Ranking is based on score out of 2025 Marks). Candidates will be allotted to the various services keeping in view their ranks in the Examination and the preferences expressed by them for the various services and posts.

The number of candidates to be summoned for interview will be about twice the number of vacancies to be filled.

The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his career. He will be asked questions on matters of general interest.

The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. The test is intended to judge the mental caliber of a candidate. In broad terms this is really an assessment of not only his intellectual qualities but also social traits and his interest in current affairs.

Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, balance of judgment, variety and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.

The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though directed and purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.

The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialized or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers. Candidates are expected to have taken an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own State or Country as well as in modern currents of thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well-educated youth.

The tenor of the interview is that of a purposeful conversation. The objective is the assessment of the thoughts and overall personality of the candidate and not merely bookish knowledge or even theoretical concepts, with the latter already being an area of evaluation in the main examination. What the board usually endeavours to assess in the aspirants, is her/his sincerity of purpose, clarity of thoughts and expression, balance of judgement, ability to reason, to think critically, analytically in a wholistic way, positiveness of approach, awareness and concern for socio-economic issues and problems, inter alia other attributes. But what is of utmost importance is the ability to think with an honest approach, sincerity of purpose and willingness to toil hard.

  1. Start early!: It is very important not to lose time. Start early. Don’t wait for the results of UPSC Civil Services Main exam. Start polishing your personality as early as possible.
  2. Know your-self: The most crucial problem with us is that we don’t know ourselves fully. A human being has so many skins inside, covering the depths of the hearts. We know so many things, but we don’t know ourselves. Try to know the different aspects of your personality, even hidden or unknown. If any of your personality traits does not suit an IAS officer, try to overcome that weakness.
  3. Read your bio-data multiple times: Most of the questions in UPSC interview will be based on the biodata of the candidate. Copies of the Detailed Application Form (DAF) will be shared with each of the board members. It is extremely important not to fumble on personal questions. Revise your bio-data many times and prepare well for questions from areas like hobbies, education, work experience, service-preference etc.
  4. Develop a positive attitude: There are many myths and rumors about IAS interview. You might have bad experiences from previous interviews as well. But don’t let negative thoughts to ruin your chances. Don’t worry about matters – interview board, position, questions etc. – which are beyond your control. Hope for the best.
  5. Don’t take UPSC interview in a light spirit: Be serious about the process and questions. Give respect to the board members who take your personality test. Never underestimate the persons in the board. They have vast experience and knowledge. Don’t be too casual on serious questions.
  6. Develop self-confidence: Everyone loves people with self-confidence. If you are sure about your beliefs, answers or solutions, express them confidently. But at the same time ensure that you don’t go overboard. Remember that the line between self-confidence and arrogance is very narrow.
  7. Don’t lie: Don’t say lies to impress UPSC interview board. Never create fake facts in your bio-data. Very often they will catch you.
  8. Improve your communication skills: Improve your command over the language for UPSC interview. If you search for words in the 25-30 minutes UPSC personality test, you may run short of time to express your ideas completely. Listening to debates and news on television channels is one practical way to improve communication skills. Also, start talking with your friends in the medium for UPSC interview.
  9. Get straight to the point: Master the art of giving to-the-point answers. Very often, long answers can be condensed into crisp, but interesting statements. If you need more guidance on do’s and don’ts for IAS interview, read our article on civil services interview where we have mentioned about the books which help in UPSC interview preparation.
  10. Don’t stop reading newspapers: Candidates often stop reading newspapers once the UPSC main exam is over. But, information about current happenings is very important for IAS interview, just like the UPSC main exam. Have a general idea about the major happenings for last one year. Also, be familiar with the headlines and stories of the newspapers on the interview day.
  11. Prepare well on your hobbies: Very often this is the first question UPSC interview board ask, many times in a light mood. Make sure you start well. Don’t give cliche answers. Hobbies help the interviewer to understand the personalities of candidates. Keep practicing your hobbies till the last week before UPSC interview.
  12. Revise your optional subject: It is seen that many candidates tend to neglect their optional subject after UPSC CSE Mains. But UPSC interview panel may ask questions from your optional subject on the interview day. Brush up recent happenings related to your optional subject.
  13. Go through your graduation text books: UPSC expects candidates to take their graduation seriously. As this is one area where the interview panel perceives the candidates to have expertise with. So, more in-depth questions can come from this area.
  14. Learn to give balanced answers: Your views should be balanced and impartial. This does not mean that you should not take a stand. Ideally, you should have stand – without any political or social biases. Once you take a stand on controversial topics, be prepared with your justification for the same. Don’t give sweeping generalizations without a proper base.
  15. Know your district and state: Questions may be asked about the district and state. Collect details about your birth place. Know the problems in your village or city. Be prepared with solutions as well.
  16. Keep calm: The questions may be from a wide area of topics/subject. You sometimes may not be knowing answers of many. If you do not know anything about a topic you are asked, then admit that you do not have any idea. Don’t panic. Keep calm. Your emotional intelligence matters. Nobody knows about everything under the Sun. UPSC board obviously knows that.
  17. Don’t compromise your moral integrity: UPSC not only measures one’s intellectual qualities but also social traits. Ensure that your moral integrity is sound.
  18. Maintain a positive body language: Reinforce your spoken words through your body language. Avoid gestures which do not suit the occasion.
  19. Understand the real ‘IAS interview questions’: Most of the questions forwarded as ‘IAS interview questions’ on the internet are not questions asked in UPSC interview. UPSC says ‘The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialised or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers’. Read ClearIAS UPSC toppers interview section to know about real UPSC interview experience.
  20. Don’t be swayed by rumours: Many UPSC candidates are seen to be carried about by the rumours about the personality test. Certain boards are seen are tight in awarding marks while others are perceived as liberal. Though slight variations may come, in reality, all boards award high and low marks depending on the performance of the candidate on the date of UPSC interview.
  21. Use common sense: Sometimes UPSC members ask questions which can be answered just by using common sense. But the stress on the interview day may hamper your thinking process. Realise that common sense is not common. Expect some puzzles which require on-the-spot critical or lateral thinking.
  22. Dress neat: The first impression matters. But it is not necessary to wear expensive blazers or suits for UPSC interview. Be comfortable with what you wear. For gents, a light colored shirt and dark trousers should give a professional appearance. A simple churidar or saree is recommended for ladies. Whatever you wear, in that dress you should look confident and neat.
  23. Re-check your documents: We advice to carefully verify the documents before-hand to avoid last minute panic. Ensure that you have all necessary documents ready. Read our article – check list for UPSC interview – to know about the documents that should be brought in for IAS Interview.
  24. Take mock IAS interviews: Rehearsals help to avoid common mistakes. Good mentors and friends can find your strengths and weakness and suggest necessary suggestions. IAS toppers like Gaurav Agarwal (2013 All-India Rank 1) has said that mock interviews help. They also help to improve your consistency. At the same time, care should be taken not to lose your genuine personality, because of the confusion created by different opinions from different people.
  25. Be yourself: Don’t try to present before UPSC board a fake personality. Don’t mug up ready-made answers for UPSC interview. Be yourself and express your opinion.