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GEOLOGY

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PAPER – I

Syllabus

Section A

General Geology

The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismographs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.

Geomorphology and Remote Sensing

Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.

Aerial photographs and their interpretation-mertis and limitations. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems. Indian Remote Sensing Sataellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology. The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.

Structural geology

Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics. Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.

Section B

Paleontology

Species- definition and nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of microfossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and its importance.

Stratigraphy and Geology of India

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsurface water. Springs. Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers. water-bearing characteristics of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and management of groundwater. Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.

Lecture Plan

Paper – I : Lecture Plan

Sr No Topic Subtopic
1 General Geology The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth
2 General Geology Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India
3 General Geology Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy.
4 Geomorphology Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations
5 Geomorphology Landforms-I
6 Geomorphology Landforms-II
7 Geomorphology
 
slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology;
8 Geomorphology
 
Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.
9 Remote Sensing:
 
Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems
10 Remote Sensing:
 
Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) – its applications.
11 Structural Geology: Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials;
12 Structural Geology: Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions;
13 Structural Geology: Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds
14 Structural Geology: Structural analysis of foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time relationship between crystallization and deformation.
15 Paleontology: definition and nomenclature; Megafossils
16 Paleontology: Microfossils and Different kinds of microfossils
17 Paleontology:
 
Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and pale oceanographic studies
18 Paleontology: Modes of preservation of fossils Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae
19 Paleontology: Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance
20 Indian Stratigraphy:
 
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships
21 Indian Stratigraphy: Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India
22 Indian Stratigraphy:
 
Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance-I
23 Indian Stratigraphy:
 
Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importanc-II
24 Indian Stratigraphy:
 
Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene /Pleistocene
25 Indian Stratigraphy:
 
Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.
26 Hydrogeology
 
Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient
27 Hydrogeology
 
Classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Ground-water chemistry Salt water intrusion
28 Hydrogeology Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry
29 Hydrogeology
 
Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting
30 Engineering Geology: Engineering properties of rocks; Geolo-gical investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges;
31 Engineering Geology:
 
Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures

PAPER – II

Syllabus


Paper – II : Syllabus

Section A

Mineralogy

Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray crystallography.

Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

Physical and chemical characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.

Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology

Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle., Magmatic differentation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.

Types and agents of metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamporphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

Sedimentology

Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation. diagenesis and lithification. Properties of sediments. Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment. Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of India.

Section-B

Economic Geology

Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore localisation. Ore textures and structures. Metallogenic epochs and provinces. Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

Mining Geology

Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

Geochemistry and Environmental Geology

Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.

Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation. Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution Environment protection-legislative measures in India.

Lecture Plan


Paper – II : Lecture Plan

Sr No Topic Subtopic
1 Mineralogy:
 
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation
2 Mineralogy:
 
Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography
3 Mineralogy:
 
Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
4 Mineralogy:
 
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates
5 Mineralogy: Common minerals of igneous rocks;
6 Mineralogy: Common Minerals of metamorphic rocks
7 Mineralogy: Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups
8 Mineralogy: Clay minerals.
9 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
 
Generation and crystallization of magmas; Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Crystallization of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite
10 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: diopside-wollastonite-silica systems  Magmatic differentation and assimilation;
11 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
 
Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks; Petro-graphy and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups,
12 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Petro-graphy and petrogenesis  of charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites; Deccan volcanic province
13 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
 
Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional and contact metamorphism;
14 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks
15 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks
16 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism
17 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India
18 Sedimentary Petrology:
 
Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks
19 Sedimentary Petrology: Classification of Clastic and non-clastic rocks
20 Sedimentary Petrology:
 
petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance-I
21 Sedimentary Petrology:
 
petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance_II
22 Sedimentary Petrology:
 
Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavy minerals and their significance;
23 Sedimentary Petrology: Sedimentary basins of India.
24 Economic Geology:
 
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits; Process of formation of minerals deposits
25 Economic Geology:
 
Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces;
26 Economic Geology:
 
Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc,
27 Economic Geology:
 
Geology of the important Indian deposits of  manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals
28 Economic Geology: Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy
29 Economic Geology:
 
Conservation and utilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
30 Mining Geology:
 
Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical
31 Mining Geology:
 
Techniques of sampling; Estimation of reserves or ore
32 Mining Geology:
 
Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores,  industrial minerals
33 Mining Geology:
 
Methods of exploration and mining  marine mineral resources and building stones, Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
34 Geochemistry
 
Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of the planets and meteorites;
35 Geochemistry
 
Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements Trace elements;
36 Geochemistry
 
Elements of crystal chemistry types of chemical bonds, coordination number; Isomorphism and polymorphism
37 Geochemistry Elementary thermodynamics.
38 Environmental Geology:
 
Natural hazards-floods- mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation
39 Environmental Geology:
 
and 40  Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly ash
40 Environmental Geology: Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection –
41 Environmental Geology: legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.

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