**Optional Electrical Engineering****Â **

**Paper I**

**Electrical Circuits: Theory and Applications**

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filter-theory: design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation: Input formats; methods of education formulation; solution of equations; output formats; SPICE.

**Signals & Systems**

Representation of continuousâ€“time and discrete-time signals & systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations.

Fourier transform,Â LaplaceÂ transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

**E.M. Theory**

Maxwellâ€™s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission line: Distributed parameter circuits, traveling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart. Waveguides: parallel plane guide, TE, TM and TEM waves, rectangular and cylindrical wave guides, resonators. Planar transmission lines; stripline, microstripline.

**Analog Electronics**

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers: single and multi-stage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Power supplies.

**Digital Electronics**

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

**Energy Conversion**

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion: Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines: characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors.

Transformers: principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines: characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors single-phase motors; FHP.

**Power Electronics and Electric Drives**

Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFETâ€“static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

**Analog Communication**

Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise: white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation: Amplitude modulation: DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrowband FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system: Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

**Microwaves and Antenna**

Electromagnetic radiation, Propagation of waves: ground waves, sky wave, space wave, tropospheric scatter propagation. Extraterrestrial communications. Antenna: Various types, gain, resistance, band-width, beamwidth and polarization, effect of ground. Antenna coupling; high frequency antennas; microwave antennas; special purpose antennas. Microwave Services: Klystron, magnetron, TWT, gun diodes, Impatt, Bipolar and FETs, Microwave integrated circuits. Microwave measurements.

**Paper II**

**Control Systems**

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representation; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. LTI systems: time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability: Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquistâ€™s criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

**Electrical Engineering Materials**

Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials: conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction; solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials; polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials: behaviour and application. Photonic materials: refractive index, absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and opto-electronic materials.

**Microprocessors and microcomputers**

8-bit microprocessor: architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, Peripheral controllers, Multiprocessing. IBM PC architecture: overview, introduction to DOS, Advanced microprocessors.

**Measurement and Instrumentation**

Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurement. Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquisition systems.

**IC Technology**

Overview of IC Technology. Unit-steps used in IC fabrication: wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching, oxidation, diffusion, ion-implantation, CVD and LPCVD techniques for deposition of poly-silicon, silicon, silicon-nitride and silicon di-oxide; metallisation and passivation.

**Power Systems: Analysis and Control**

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concept of system stability: swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission; FACTS. Computer control and Automation: Introduction to energy control centres; various states of a power system; SCADA systems and RTUs. Active power control: Speed control of generators, tie-line control, frequency control. Economic dispatch.

**Power system protection**

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection: Introduction; line bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

**Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management**

Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy: Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: Thermal conversion: photo-voltaic conversion. Wave-energy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics : discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.

**Digital Communication**

Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding: error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

**Satellite Communication, Radar and TV**

Satellite Communication: General overview and technical characteristics, earth station equipment, satellite link design, CNR of Satellite system. Radar: Basic principles, Pulsed systems: CW Doppler radar, FMCW radar, Phase array radars. Television Systems: Television systems and standards, Black-and White-and Colour-TV transmission and receiver systems.

**Fibre Optic System**

Multiplexing: Time division multiplexing, Frequency Division multiplexing. Optical properties of materials: Refractive index absorption and emission of light, optical fibres, lasers and optoelectronic materials Fibre optic links